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LIBRARY OF 





KEITH M. READ 

CONFEDERATE 

COLLECTION 



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THE 



TROOPER'S MANUAL: 

OR, 

TACTICS 

FOR 

Sigjjt Jragowts anb Stountch giftcmen. 

GDMPILED, ABRIDGED AND ARRANGED, 
BY 

Col. J. LUCIUS DAVIS, 



GRADUATE OP TUB TTNITED 8TATES MILITARY ACADKWY, 

"WKST POINT; FORMERLY AN OFPICKIt OP THE UNITFT) 

STATER ARMY ; AND FOR MANY YKAR8 COMMAXDKR 

AND INSTRUCTOR OP VOLUNTEER CAVALRY. 



RICHMOND, VA. 
PUBLISHED BY A. MORRIS. 

1861. 



Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1861, 

By A. MORRIS, 

In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the Con- 
federate States, for the Eastern District of Virginia. 



MACFARtANE A MRGU8S0N, PRINTERS, 



PREFACE. 



No military work is in more demand at present 
<thap a cheap, plain, brief compendium of Cavalry 
Tactics. 

All books of this description, heretofore pub- 
lished, are too large and costly to serve as manual* 
for the Trooper. They abound, too, in matter of no 
interest, at least, to Mounted Volunteers. 

As a general rule, what have the latter to do 
with the tactics of the riding-fiouse? or the drill 
of Lancers, Hussars, Cuirassiers, or Carabiniers ? 

The revolver-manual, adopted in this work, ig 
the admirable one of Capt. Bell, U. S. Cavalry. 
It is superseding the defective one given in every 
Cavalry hand-book which has preceded this. The 
demand for this work being immediate, the Com- 
piler has ventured to avail himself of that manual 
for the revolver, without having had time or oppor- 
tunity to obtain the author's permission. 



IT PREFACE. 

The Mounted Rifle drill offered is the authorized 
one of the United States service prepared by Capt 
Maury of the Mounted Rifles, under the orders 
of the War Department. 

The order of the Secretary of War establishes 
this drill, with its single rank formation for all 
mounted troops, the double rank system being re- 
tained for garrison service only. 

In fact, this formation, (the single rank,) re- 
commended by Capt. McClellan of the Military 
Commission to Europe, and approved by our best 
Cavalry commanders, is the only one suited to ac- 
tual service in any portion of the American Con- 
tinent. 

But as two ranks answer for garrison service in 
peace, for reviews, parades, and manoeuvres in con- 
tracted limits, both the single and the two rank 
drills are given in this book — only one, viz. the two 
rank formation, being found in other works. 

The originals have been faithfully copied, ex- 
cept where error demanded correction, not more 
than fifty pages (including notes, remarks, and 
Glossary) having been introduced by the Compiler, 
as demanded by recent improvements in arms and 
otherwise. 

General and Field Officers and Superintendents 
of Riding Schools will require more extended trea- 



PREFACE. V 

tises, embracing the whole subject of Equitation ; 
but the Compiler hopes that this little volume pro- 
vides all necessary instruction for every grade, from 
the Trooper to the Commander of the Squadron. 

The Compiler. 
Richmond, Va., April, 1861. 



INTRODUCTORY REMARKS, 



Cavalry is a general term, embracing, in its 
modern and more extended sense, all classes of 
mounted soldiery.. 

Dragoons were originally armed with muskets, 
and were trained equally for Cavalry and Infantry 
service. 

In the United States service, Cavalry and Dra- 
goons are armed and drilled alike, the distinction 
being merely nominal. 

Mounted Rifles differ from other Cavalry in 
arms, manoeuvres, and in habitually dismounting 
for the combat, their horses being chiefly the means 
of rapid locomotion. 

All American Cavalry should be well trained on 
foot in the Light Infantry exercises; should carry 
a light rifle, (as well as sabre and pistol,) and use 
the fire-arms mostly on foot. 

For actual service, the regular Cavalry saddle 
and equipments are necessary. The Mexican sad- 



V1U INTRODUCTORY REMARKS. 

die, however, is generally preferred by the Mounted 
Rangers of the Western frontier. 

Fancy hats, with plumes of ostrich or other fea- 
thers, are only suitable on parades and reviews, but, 
on campaign, they are a useless incumbrance. 

A conical forage-cap, with water-proof cover 
extending, when unrolled, to the shoulders; a 
water-proof cape reaching from the neck to the 
hips ; one close-bodied coat, one rtfund jacket, one 
over-coat, and two pairs of pants, (the four latter 
of dark-blue or gray cloth,) together with under- 
garments and short-top boots, constitute the proper 
apparel for all mounted troops. 

The Cavalry Tactics, from the drill of the 
Trooper to that of the Squadron, both inclusive, 
should be acquired by all Cavalry Corps. The pe- 
culiar organization and manoeuvres of the Mounted 
Rifles will be confined to that class of troops ; but 
they, too, should be instructed in the general prin- 
ciples, laid down in the following pages, for all 
Cavalry exercises, adding what appertains to their 
own branch of the service. 

Volunteers, who are generally expert horsemen, 
sometimes enter with reluctance into the minutiae 
of mounting, dismounting, the prescribed manage- 
ment of the arms and legs, and the elementary 
rules of equitation ; but every item should be prac- 



INTRODUCTORY REMARKS. IX 

tised in detail until thoroughly understood*; as 
they become more familiar with them, they will 
more fully appreciate their importance. 

A troop-horse, when thoroughly trained, can be 
guided by the arms and legs alone, thus allowing 
the trooper the use of both hands, if necessary in 
combat. 

The following rules are presented substantially 
as laid down in the prescribed tactics, the Compiler 
having no authority to make any important altera- 
tions in the authorized text-books.. 



CAVALRY TACTICS. 



JPAttT FIR ST. 



grill of t\t Stop*.- 

For the first lessons, it is best to charge each in- 
structor with a very small squad of recruits, having 
between them intervals of one yard. 

But it is sometimes necessary, especially with 
volunteers, for one single Instructor to take charge 
of a platoon, or even a squadron. In this case, 
they may be arranged in one rank, (which is best) 
or in two ranks along the sides of a square ; all 
facing inwards toward the Instructor, who will exe- 
cute in person all the motions, or will cause them 
to be executed by a well-drilled trooper, stationed 
in the centre. 

Having acquired thoroughly the- motions of 
mounting and dismounting, the whole may be formed 
into a platoon or squadron, according to numbers 
present. When two ranks are used, they should 
be six yards distant, measured from head to tail. 



12 THE TROOPER. 

To conduct the horses to the drill ground. 

The trooper conducts his horse to the ground, 
the reins passed over the neck, and their extremity 
engaged in the left cloak-strap.* He holds the 
reins with the right hand at six inches from the 
mouth of the horse, the nails under, the hand ele- 
vated and firm, to prevent the horse from jumping. 

When the trooper is under arms, he has the sabre 
hooked up. 

The carbine is passed over the right shoulder, the 
left hand hanging by the side. 

Having arrived on the ground, the sabre is un- 
hooked. 

Position of the trooper before mounting. 

The trooper places himself on the left side of the 
horse, abreast of the nether ja^v ; he holds the reins 
with the right hand at six inches from the mouth 
of the horse, the nails downward. 

The trooper has his heels upon the same line and 
as near together as his conformation will permit, 
the feet at little less than a right angle, and equally 
turned out; the knee straight without being stiff, 
the body perpendicular upon the haunches, and 
slightly inclined forward ; the left hand hanging at 
the side, the palm a little turned out, the little 
finger along the seam of the pantaloons; the head 



*In the absence of cloak-straps, any other mode of 
attaching the reins to the pummel may answer. 



THE TROOPER. 13 

erect; the chin drawn in, but without constraint; 
the eyes fixed to the front. 

When the trooper is under arms, he has the left 
handover the sabre. 

To Mount* 

The instructor commands: 

Prepare to mount, 
1 time, 2 motions. 

1. At the command prepare to mouvt, Nos. 1 
and 3 of each rank move six paces to the front, 
stepping off with the left foot, keeping opposite 
their intervals, and regulating by Ihe right. 

Place the right foot three inches in rear of the 
left; make a face and a half to the right on both 
heels; let go the right rein; slip the right hand 
along the left rein ; take two steps, stepping off 
with the right foot, and face to the left upon the 
point of the left foot, the right side towards the 
flank of the horse; carry back the right heel three 
inches in rear of the left; the right hand seizing 
the end of the reins is placed upon the cantle of 
the saddle. 

2. Place a third of the left foot in the stirrup, 
supporting it against the fore-arm of the horse; rest 
upon the point of the right foot, and seize with the 

*TJie trooper being aligned with the tallest on the 
right, the orderly sergeant, (or senior non-commissioned 
officer) calls the roll before mounting. 

2 



14 THE TROOPER. 

left hand over the reins a lock of the mane as far 
forward as possible, the extremity of the lock pass- 
ing out of the hand on the side of the little finger. 

Mount. 

1 time, 2 motions. 

1. At the command mount, spring from the 
rio-ht foot, holding firmly to the mane, at the same 
time pressing upon the cantle to prevent the saddle 
from turning; the body erect. 

2. Pass the right leg stretched over the croup of 
the horse, without touching him ; sit lightly in the 
saddle, placing at the same time the right hand, 
without quitting the reins, upon the right holster, 
the palm of the hand resting upon it, the fingers on 
the outside of it, and take one rein of the snaffie in 
each hand.* 

(If the trooper is using the curb-bridle, he will 
pass the reins of it in the left hand ari'd adjust 
them.) 

Place the right foot in the stirrup. 

Let fall the carbine by the side."} - 

Position of the bridle-hand. 

The reins with their slide in the left hand, the 
little finger between the reins, the other fingers well 

*The reins of the snaffle are thus held by recruits 
and beginners in equitation. The practised horseman 
will take his riding reins at once in his left hand on 
mounting. 

-(•The carbine (or rifle) is suspended by a strap over 
the left shoulder. 



THE TROOPER. 15 

closed, and the thumb upon the second joint of the 
first fingers; the elbow slightly detached from the 
body, the hand four inches above the pommel of the 
saddle, the finger six inches from, and turned to- 
wards the body; the little finger a little nearer the 
body than the upper part of the wrist, the right 
hand at the side. 

Length of the stirrups. 

Havtng commenced the exercise, the instructorassures 
himself that the stirrups are properly adjusted. 

They are the proper length if, when the trooper raises 
himself on the stirrups, there is a space of six inches be- 
tween the fork and t]»e saddle. 

Position of the foot in the stirrup. 

The stirrup should support only the weight of 
the leg ; the foot ought to be inserted one-third of 
its length, the heel lower than the toe. 

The stirrup should support only the weight of the leg : i f 
the trooper bore too much upon the stirrups, his seat 
would be deranged, as well as the position of the legs 
and the justness of their action would be impaired. 

The foot ought to be inserted one-third of its length: if the 
trooper did not insert the foot sufficiently far in the 
stirrup, he would risk losing them, particularly during 
the lively gaits. If the foot were inserted too far, the 
legs would not fall naturally. 

Theheel lower than the toe: that the foot may keep the 
stirrup without effort and without stiffness; that the play 
of the joint with the leg may remain free, and that the 
spur being further removed from the horse, there is less 
danger of its being improperly employed. 



16 THE TROOPER. 

Form — Ranks. 

At the last part of the command, winch is 
ranks, Nos. 1 and 3 raise the wrist (of the bridle 
hand), and hold the legs close to the body of the 
horse to keep him quiet; Nos. 2 and 4 enter the 
intervals without jostling aud without precipitation. 

The rear rank being formed, closes to the distance 
of 2 feet from the front. 

Before causing the command mount tobeexecuted, the 
instructor explains in detail the two times of it, and 
allows but a short interval between the fir.-t and seeoni 
part of this command, because, were the trooper to remain 
a long time on the stirrup, the horses would become 
restive and move out of their proper places. 

The instructor will explainto the troopers, that in car- 
rying the right hand to the bolster before placing them, 
selves in the saddle, they will be able to do so lightly, 
and will not run the risk of injuring themselves in bes- 
triding their horses. 

The instructor causes the stirrups to be crossed upon 
the neck, the left stirrup over the right.* 

The position of the trooper, mounted, 

The buttocks hearing equally upon the saddle, 
and as far forward as possible ; 

The thighs turned upon their flat side without 
effort, embracing equally the horse, and stretched 
only by their own weight and that of the legs ; 

A supple bend of the knees; 

* This is usually omitted in volunteer-cavalry exercises. 



THE TROOPER. 17 

The legs free and falling naturally; 

The point of the feet falling in like manner; (i. 
e. when not in the stirrups.) 

The loins supported without stiffness; 

The upper part of the body at ease, free and 
erect; 

The shoulders equally thrown back; 

The arms free, the elbows falling naturally ; 

The head erect, at ease, and not drawn in be- 
tween the shoulders; 

One rein of the snaffle in each hand, the fingers 
closed, the thumb along each rein, the wrists as 
high as the elbow, at 6 inches from each other, 
the fingers turned towards each other, the upper 
extremity of the reins leaving the hand on the side 
of the thumb.* 

The buttocks bearing equally upon the saddle : Serving 
as a base to the position of the trooper, they ought to be 
equally charged with all the weight of the body to assure 
its steadiness. 

And as far forward as possible: In order that the 
trooper may have greater facility in embracing his horse, 
and conforming to all his movements. 

The thighs turned upon their flat side without effort, 
embracing equally the horse : The more the thighs adhere 
to the horse, the greater is the solidity of the trooper. If 
they did not embrace the horse equally, the seat of the 
trooper would be unfixed. 

And stretched only by their own weight and that of the 
legs: If they did not fall naturally, they could be extend- 
ed only by an effort, which would cause constraint. 

*Note. This paragraph, referring to the mode o^ 
holding the snaffle rein, is not applicable to volunteer- 
cavalry who are generally expert horsemen. 



18 THE TROOPER. 

A supple bend of the knees: To give a facility in carrying 
the legs more or less to the rear, without deranging the 
position of the thighs. 

The legs free, and falling naturally, the point of the feet 
falling in like manner : Stiffness in the legs would impair 
the good effects of their action. 

The loins supported without stiffness : The loins should 
be sustained, to give the trooper grace and solidity. — 
Stiffness would prevent his accommodating himself to 
all the motions of the horse. 

The -upper part of the body at ease, free and erect : The 
body can preserve its erectness only by suppleness and 
ease. 

The shoulders equally thrown back: "Were the shoulders 
thrown forward, the back would be curved and the 
breast contracted ; were they thrown too much to the 
rear, the loins would be hollowed and the action of the 
arms constrained. 

The arms free : In order not to employ more force than 
is absolutely necessary ; constrained movements produce 
uncertain effects. 

The elbows falling naturally : That they may contribute 
to the steadiness of the seat, and communicate stiffness 
neither to the body nor fore-arms. 

The head erect: If the head were not erect, the body 
would lean towards the side it inclined to. 

At ease, and not drawn in between the shoulders : To be 
able to turn it with ease, and that its movements may be 
independent of those of ihe body. 

The use of the reins. 

The reins serve to prepare the horse for the 
movements he is required to execute, to direct 
him, and to stop him. Their action should be 
progressive and in accordance with that of the 
legs. 



THE TROOPER. 19 

When the trooper makes use of the reins, the 
arms should act with suppleness, and their move- 
ments ought to extend from the wrist to the 
shoulder. 

The ? use of the legs. 

The legs serve to urge the horse forward, to 
support him, and to aid him in turning to the 
right and to the left. Whenever the trooper wishes 
his horse to move forward, he should close the legs 
hy degrees behind the girths, causing their effect 
to correspond with the sensibility of the horse, 
taking care neither to open nor elevate the knees, 
of which the bend should be always pliajat. The 
trooper relaxes the legs by degrees, as he closed 
them. 

The effect of the reins and legs com- 
bined. 

By elevating a little the left wrist, and closing 
the legs, the trooper " gathers his horse ;" by ele- 
vating again the wrist, he slackens the pace ; by 
repeating this movement of the wrist, he stops 
the horse, or " reins back." The troopers ought to 
elevate the wrists without curving them, at the 
same time drawing them slightly towards the body. 

By opening the right rein and closing the right 
leg, the trooper turns his horse to the right. To 
open the right rein, the wrist is carried, without 



20 THE TROOPER. 

turning it, more or less to the right, according to 
the sensibility of the horse. 

By opening the left rein, and closing the left leg, 
the trooper turns his horse to the left. To open 
the left rein, the left wrist is carried, without turn- 
ing it more or less to the left, according to the sen- 
sibility of the horse. 

By lowering slightly the wrist, the horse is at 
liberty to move forward; the closing the legs de- 
termines the movement.* 

To march. 

The instructor commands: l 

1, Squad (or company, or platoon') forioard. 

2. March. 

At the command squad forward, elevate slightly 
the wrists, and close the legs, in order to "gather 
the horse." 

At the command mal.ch, lower slightly the 
wrists, and close the legs more or less, according 
to the sensibility of the horse. The horse having 
obeyed, replace the wrists and the legs by degrees. 

If the trooper did not gather his horse at the prepara- 
tory command, 'the execution of the second command 
would be too abrupt or too slow. 

If the trooper, at the command of execution, did not 
commence by lowering the wrist, the horse would not 
have the liberty necessary to enable him to move forward. 

If the trooper did not close equally the legs, the horse 
would not move directly to the front; and if he did not 

* The wrist of the bridle hand is of course meant. 



THE TROOPER. 21 

close them progressively, the horse would not obey with- 
out irregularity. 

To halt. 

After some steps, the instructor commands: 
1. Squad. 2. Halt. 

At the command squad, the trooper gathers his 
horse, without slackening his pace. 

At the command halt, the trooper braces him- 
self in the saddle; elevate the wrists at the same 
time by degrees, and close the legs in order to 
prevent the horse from receding. The horse hav- 
ing obeyed, replace the wrists and the legs by de- 
grees. 

When the horse does not obey, cause him to feel 
successively the effect of each rein, according to his 
sensibility. 

If the trooper pressed thehorse with the thighs or legs 
it would be difficult for him to stop. 

If he did not use the two reins equally, and hold the 
legs equally near, the horse would stop in a diagonal 
position. 

If the trooper used the reins with too much force and 
precipitation, the horse would stop suddenly and fall 
back. 

To turn to the right, and to the left.* 

The instructor commands: 

1. Squad to the right (or to the left?) 

2. March. 3. Halt. 

*In practising the turnings, let intervals be taken of 
3 yards, from boot to boot. 



22 THE TROOPER. 

At the command, squad to the right, gather the 
horse. 

At the command March, open the right rein, 
and close progressively the right leg. In order not 
to turn the horse too short, perform the movement 
upon a quarter of a circle of 3 paces.* The move- 
ment being almost completed, diminish the effect 
of the rein and the right leg, supporting the horse 
at the same time with the left rein and leg to termi- 
nate the movement. 

At the command halt, elevate slightly the 
wrists, and hold the legs near, in order to keep the 
horse straight in the new direction; replace the 
wrists and the legs by degrees. 

If the trooper did not describe the arc of the pre- 
scribed circle, the movement would be too much shor- 
tened. 

If the trooper, towards the end of the movement, did 
not diminish the effect of the right rein and the light leg. 
by means of the left rein and left leg, the horse would 
perform more than a turn to the right. 

To turn-about to the right and to the 
left. 

The instructor commands: 

1. Squad to the right-about (or to the left-abov.i) 

2. March. o. Halt. 

This movement is executed on the principles 
prescribed for the turn to the right or to the left, 

*That is, a circular path or track 3 yards in length. 



THE TROOPER. 23 

with this difference, that the horse should pass over 
a semi-circle of 6 paces, and face to the rear. 

In order to make the trooper comprehend better the 
movements detailed, the instructor places himself at the 
shoulder of the horse, and describes each movement on 
foot, in marking off the arc of the prescribed circle. 

To make a quarter-turn to the right and 
to the left. 

The instructor commands. 

1. Squad right oblique, (or left oblique. ) 

2. March. 3. Halt. 

At the command Squad right obNque.g&ther the 
horse. 

At the command March, open a little the right 
rein, and close slightly the right leg, in order to 
make the horse execute a quarter turn to the right; 
cause the horse to feel, almost at the same time, 
the effect of the left rein and the left leg, to termi- 
nate the movement without increasing the degree cf 
obliquity. 

At the command Halt, elevate slightly the 
wrists and close the legs, to keep the direction of 
the quarter-turn to the right ; replace the wrists 
and legs by degrees. 

The instructor commands halt almost imme- 
diately after the command march; he does not 
require great exactness in this movement, the ob- 
ject of which is, to give the trooper the first idea 
of the oblique direction. 



24 THE TROOPER. 

The movements detailed, after having been executed 
to the right, are executed to the left, according to the 
same principles, but by inverse means. 

To rein-back, and to cease rein-back. 

The instructor commands : 

1. Squad — Baclcwards, 3. Squad. 

2. March. 4. Halt. 

At the command Squad backwards, gather the 
horse. 

At the command march, keep a firm seat, ele- 
vate the wrists, and close the legs. As soon as the 
horse obeys, lowor and elevate successively the 
wrists, which is called yielding and chucking. If 
the horse throws the haunches to the right, close 
the right leg; if he throws them to the left, close 
the left lesc. If these means are not sufficient to 
replace the horse in his proper position, open the 
rein on the side towards which the horse throws 
his haunches, causing him to feel, at the same time, 
slightly, the effect of the opposite rein. 

At the command squad, the trooper prepares to 
stop. 

At the command halt, lower the wrists and close 
the legs. The horse having obeyed, replace the 
wrists and legs by degrees. 

If the trooper did not keep a firm seat, he would in- 
cline forward, from the effect of the movement of the 
horse. 

]f, instead of lowering and elevating the wrists alter- 
nately, the trooper were to prolong the effect of the 



THE TROOPER. 25 

hands, the horse would step back suddenly, and would 
cross or throw himself upon his haunches. 

To dismount. 

The instructor commands : 

1. Prepare to dismount. 
1 time, 2 motions. 

1. At the command prepare to dismount, 
Nos. 1 and 3 of the front rank move forward 6 
paces, Nos. 2 and 4 of the rear rank rein-back 4 
paces, and keep themselves opposite their intervals. 
The troopers of each rank dress by the right. 

Seize the carbine with the right hand, at the 
lower band ; pass it over the right shoulder diago- 
nally, the muzzle in the air, so that it cannot fall 
back. 

Seize the reins of the snaffle (or of the curb- 
bridle') above and near the left thumb with the 
right hand, the nails downward, and place this 
hand upon the right holster. Disengage the right 
foot from the stirrup, and seize with the left hand 
a lock of the mane over the reins. 

Dismount. 

1 time, 2 motions. 

1. At the command dismount, rise upon the 
left stirrup ; pass the right leg extended over the 
croup of the horse, without touching liim, and 
bring the right thigh near to the left, the body 
well sustained ; place at the same 'time the right 
3 



26 THE TROOPER. 

hand upon the cantle of the saddle, slipping it 
along the reins without letting them go ; descend 
lightly to the ground, the body erect, the heels 
upon the same line. Let go the mane with the left 
hand ; engage the extremity of the reins in the 
left cloak-strap with the right hand, which then 
seizes the left rein. 

2. Make a face and 2 steps to the left, stepping 
off with the left foot; slip the right hand alongthe 
left rein, seize with the same hand both reins at 6 
inches from the mouth of the horse, the nails down- 
ward, and take the position of the trooper before 
mounting. 

Form — Ranks. 

At the last part of the command, which is RANKS, 
Nos. 1 and 3 of each rank elevate slightly the right 
hand to keep the horse quiet ; Nos. 2 and 4 return 
to their intervals gently. 

To file? off. 

The instructor commands : 

1. By the right (or by the left) — File off. 

2. March. 

At the last part of the first command, which is 
file OFF, hook up the sabre ; use both hands to 
unhook the curb and unbuckle the nose-band ; re- 
take the reins with the right hand, and replace the 
left hand at the side. 

At the command march, the* trooper of the 
right, in each rank, steps off with the left foot, 



THE TROOPER. 27 

leading his horse to the front ; he takes 4 steps, 
turns to the right, and marches in the new direc- 
tion, holding at the same time the hand high and 
firm to prevent the horse from jumping. Each 
trooper in each rank executes successively the 
same movement, when the one who precedes him 
has moved 4 paces to the front. t 

To leap to the ground ; the trooper, holding 
the reins of the snaffle as prescribed, seizes with 
the left hand a lock of the mane, the fingers well 
closed ; places the righthand upon the pommel, raises 
himself upon the wrists, brings the right thigh to 
the side of the left, remains an instant in this posi- 
tion, and descends lightly to the ground. 

To leap on the horse ; the trooper seizes the 
mane with the left hand, places the right hand 
which holds the reins upon the pommel of the sad- 
dle, springs lively, raising himself upon the two 
wrists, remains an instant in this position, and 
places himself lightly in tne saddle. 

The instructor sometimes gives the command to rest, 
in marching, in order to calm the horses after a quick 
pace, and to relieve the troopers who may become fa- 
tigued. During the rest in marching, the troopers relax 
themselves a little; but without changing the pace and 
without losing their distance. The conductors always 
regulate the march. 

Being halted, to commence the move at 
a trot. 

The commands are : 

1. Column forward. 

2. Trot. 3. March. 



35 THE TROOPER. 

At the command trot, gather the horse. 

At the command march, lower the wrists and 
close the legs progressively ; as soon as the horse 
obeys, replace the wrists and the legs by degrees. 

Marching at a trot, to halt. 

The troopers marching at a trot, and in column, the 
instructor commands : 

1. Column. 2. Halt. 

At the command column, gather the horse. 

At the command halt, elevate the wrists by 
degrees, until the horse stops ; and hold the legs 
always near, to keep him straight and to prevent 
his stepping back. The horse having obeyed, re- 
place the wrists and the legs by degrees. 

The instructor requires all the troopers to set off freely 
at the trot, at the command ma*rch, and to stop all to- 
gether, without jostling, at the command halt. 

To pass from the trot to the trot-out, 
and from the trot-out to the trot. 

The troopers marching at the trot, and in column, the 
instructor commands: 

Trot-out. 

At this command, lower a little the wrists and 
close the legs progressively ; as soon as the horse 
obeys, replace the wrists and the legs by degrees. 



THE TROOPER. 29 

The gate being lengthened to a suitable degree, the in- 
structors see that the troopers keep their horses up to it. 

He pays particular attention to the position of the 
troopers. He reminds them that it is in holding the body 
erect, having a light hand, the loins supple, and in 
allowing the thighs and legs to fall naturally, they can 
diminish the effect of the reaction of the horse, and con- 
form more readily to all his motions. 

To prevent the horses from over-reaching, it is neces- 
sary to raise the wrists and close more or less the legs. 

To passage from the trot-out to the trot, the instructor 
commands : 

Slow trot. 

At this command, elevate the wrists by degrees 
and close the legs, to prevent the horse from taking 
the walk ; as soon as the horse obeys, replace the 
wrists and the legs by degrees. 

To pass from the trot to the gallop. 

The instructor commands: 

1. Gallop. 2. March. 

At the command gallop, gather the horse and 
keep him perfectly straight. 

At the command march, carry the hand slightly 
forward and to the left, to enable the right shoul- 
der to move in advance of the left, and close the 
legs behind the girths in order to urge the horse 
forward, causing him to feel lightly the effect of 
the lei't leg. The horse having obeyed, hold a 
light hand and the legs near, to keep him at his 
gait. 

3* 



30 THE TROOPER. 

The instructor requires the troopers to be perfectly- 
calm, to conduct their horses with mildness, and particu- 
larly to preserve a light hand that the gallop may be free 
and regular. 



To passage to the right or to the left. 



The commands are : 

1. Right (or left) pass. 3. Squad. 

2. MARCH. 4. HALT. 

At the command right pass, bear the shoulders 
of the horse to the right, opening a little the right 
rein, and closing the right leg. 

This movement is only preparatory ; it indicates 
to the trooper that the shonlders of his horse should 
always commence the march, and precede the move- 
ment of the haunches. 

At the command march, open the right rein to 
incline the horse to the right, closing at the same 
time the left leg that the haunches may follow, 
without leaning the body to the left; make use of 
the left rein and the right leg to support the horse 
and moderate his movement. 

At the command halt, cause to cease insensibly 
the effect of the right rein and the left leg, em- 
ploying the opposite rein and leg ; straighten the 
horse and replace the wrists and legs by degrees. 

To passage to the left, and to halt, employ the same 
principles and inverse means. 



THE TROOPEK. 31 

The principal movements of the bridle- 
hand. 

By raising slightly the hand and drawing it in 
towards the body, the trooper gathers his horse ; 
by raising it still more, the gait is made slower. 
By increasing the effect of the hand, the horse is 
stopped ; if increased still more, the horse is reined 
back. 

By lowering slightly the hand, the horse is " at 
liberty to move forward. 

By carrying the hand forward and to the right, 
the horse is turned to the right. 

By carrying the hand forward and to the left, the 
horse is turned to the left. * 

As soon as the horse obeys, the bridle-hand re- 
sumes its original position. 

-In all the movements of the hand, the arm should 
act freely, without communicating constraint to the 
shoulder or body; the effect of the curb being more 
powerful than that of the snaffle,it should be used 
progressively, particularly in stopping and reining 
back. 

To gather the horse. 

Elevate slightly the hand, drawing it at the same 
time towards the body, and close the legs. 

To march. 

Lower slightly the hand, the wrist always oppo- 
site the middle of the body, and close the legs pro- 



h'i THE TROOPER. 

gressively. As soon as the 'horse obeys, replace the 
hand and legs by degrees. 

To halt. 

The trooper braces himself in the saddle ; ele- 
vate the hand by degrees, drawing it towards the 
body, and close the legs to keep the horse straight, 
and prevent him from stepping back. As soon as 
the, horse obeys, replace the hand and the legs by 
degrees. 

To turn to the right. 

Carry the hand forward and to the right, accord- 
ing^ the sensibility of the horse ; close the right 
leg, the left leg held near to sustain him. The 
movement being nearly finished, replace the hand 
and the legs by degrees. 

To turn to the left. 

Carry the hand forward and to the left, according 
to the sensibility of the horse ; close the left leg, 
the right leg held near to sustain him. The move- 
ment being nearly finished, replace the hand and 
legs by degrees. 

To turn-about to the right and to the 
left. 

The same principles as prescribed to execute a 
•turn to the right, or to the left, observing to pass 
over a semi-circle. 



THE TROOPER. 33 

To make a quarter-turn to the right, and 
to the left, 

The same principles as prescribed to execute a 
turn to the right, or to the left, observing that the 
movement of the hand does not require the horse 
to do more ^an make a quarter-turn to the right, 
or to the leTi. 



To rein back, and to cease reining back. 

The same principles as prescribed for the halt, 
observing, as soon as the horse obeys, to lower and 
raise the hand alternately, that the movement may' 
be regular. 

To cease reining back, relax the effect of the 
hand and close the legs; as soon as the horse obeys, 
replace the hand and the legs by degrees. 

Of the spur. 

If the horse does not obey the legs, it is necessary 
to. employ the spur. 

It is only necessary to use it occasionally, but 
always vigorously, and at the moment the horse 
commits the fault. 

In order to use the spurs, it is necessary to keep 
steady the body, the waist and the wrists; to cling 
to the horse with the thighs and the calves of the 
legs; turn the point of the feet a little out; lower 
a little the wrists ; press the spurs close behind the 



34 THE TROOPER. 

girths, without moving the body, and let them re- 
main there until the horse obeys ; replace then the 
wrists and the legs by degrees. 

When the troopers employ the spur, the instructor 
observes that they do not bear too much upon the reins, 
which would counteract the effect of the spur. He also 
observes that the troopers do not use the spur unneces-» 
sarily. 

Preparation for the sabre exercise. 

The instructor causes the sabre exercise to be 
executed at a halt; for this purpose he opens the 
ranks, and commands : 



"} 



1. By the left (or by the right) — open files. 

2. March. 

3. Right (or left) — Dress. 

4. Front. 

At the command march, the right trooper of 
each rank moves forward 6 paces ; the one on the 
left of each rank turns to the left, and moves for- 
ward ; he is followed by all the other troopers of 
his rank," who execute the same movement as soon 
as they have the neeessary space to put themselves 
in file at their proper distances. The second 
trooper from the right of each rank, after having 
marched 3 paces, turns and dresses to the right; 
each of the other troopers look occasionally to the 
rear, and perform successively the same movement 
when at three paces from the one who follows him, 
and dresses upon those already formed ; the troopers 



THE TROOPER. 35 

)f the rear rank place themselves exactly behind 
;heir file-leader. 

After the command march, the instructor moves to the 
ight of the front rank, and when the second trooper from 
he right has turned to the front, he commands : Right — 
Dress. After having rectified the alignment and the 
listances in the two ranks, he commands : Front. 

When the instructor wishes to form the platoon, 
be commands : 

1. To the right (or to the left) — dose files. 

2. March. 

At the command march, the right trooper of 
jach rank moves forward 6 paces; all the other 
;roopers execute a turn to the right and move for- 
ward. 

Each trooper, on arriving within 2 paces of the 
place he is to occupy in line, turns to the left, and 
places himself on the left of the troopers already 
formed, and dresses to the right. 

The instructor closes the ranks as soon as they 
ire formed. 

The sabre manual. 

Draw — Sabre. 

2 times. 

1. At the first part of the command, which is 
DRAW, incline slightly the head to the left, carry 
the right hand above the reins, engage tbe wrist in 
the sword-knot; seize the gripe, disengage the 



36 THE TROOPER. 

blade six inches from the scabbard, arid turn the 
head to the front. 

2. At the last part of the command, which is 
SABRE, draw quickly the sabre, raising the arm to 
its full length ; hold the sabre in this position an 
instant, then carry it to the right shoulder, the 
back of the blade supported against the hollow of 
the shoulder, the wrist upon the top of the thigh, 
the little finger on the outside of the gripe. 

Present — Sabre. 
1 time. 
At the last part of the command, which is sabre, 
carry the sabre forward, the thumb opposite to and 
6 inches from the neck, the blade perpendicular, 
the edge to the left, the thumb along the right side 
of the gripe, the little finger joined to the other 
three. 

Carry — S ABRE . 
1 time. 

At the last part of the command, which is sabre, 
replace the sabre, the back of the blade supported 
against the hollow of the shoulder, the wrist upon 
the upper part of the thigh, the little finger outside 
of the gripe. 

Return— Sabre . 

2. times. 

1. At the first part of the command, which is 
RETURN, execute the movement oi present sabre. 

2, At the last part of the command, which is 



THE TROOPER. 37 

SABRE, carry the wrist opposite to and 6 inches 
from the left shoulder, lower the blade, passing it 
near the left arm, the point to the rear ; incline the 
head slightly to the left, and fix the eyes upon the 
mouth of the scabbarb ; return the blade, disengage 
the wrist from the sword-knot, turn the head to the 
front, and adjust the reins. 

Inspection (oj ) — Sabre. 

1 time, 7 motions. 

1 . At the last part of the command, which is 
sabre, execute the first time of draw sabre. 

2. Execute the second time of draw sabre. 

3. Present the sabre. 

4. Turn in the wrist, in order to show the other 
side of the blade. 

5. Carry the sabre to the shoulder. 

6. Execute the first time of return sabre. 

7 Execute the second time of return sabre. 

Manual of arms, in marching. 

The troopers are required to draw sabre, and to return 
sabre, while marching in column at awalk. 

The instructor observes that neither the seat, nor the 
position of the bridle hand is deranged. He also requires 
the troopers to keep their legs near, in order to prevent 
the horses from slackening the gait. When the troopers 
have the sabre drawn, the instructor observes that they 
do not throw back the right shoulder. 

As the troopers become more skilful, they are required 
to draw sabre, in marching first at the trot, and then at 
the gallop. They also take the position of the first motion 
4 



38 THE TROOPER. 

of in tierce point, and front cut, in marching at the differ- 
ent gaits. 

The troopers are taught to take the position of the 
sabre for the charge, as front rank and as rear rank. For 
this purpose the instructor commands : 

As front rank — Raise sabre. 

1 time. 

At the last part of the command, which is sabre, 
take the position of in tierce point. 

The instructor then causes the sabre to be carried, and 
commands : 

As rear rank — Raise sabre. 

1 time. 

At the last part of the command, which is sabre, 
take the position of the first motion of front ait. 

These movements are executed successively at the 
different gaits. 

The sabres are returned in inarching at a walk ■ for this 
purpose the troopers are directed to support the back of 
the blade against the left arm. until the point has entered 
the scabbard. 

The troopers are exercised, sabres drawn, in turning to 
the right and to the left at the trot and at the gallop, and to 
the right-about, and left-about, at the trot only. 

Sabre exercise at all gaits. 

The troopers execute progressive!)-, at the different 
gaits, the exercise of the sabre, taking care to preserve 
between each other the distance of 3 yards. 



1HE TROOPER. 39 

Let the other motions of this exercise be first taught to 
the. troopers dismounted. 

Preparatory to all cuts and thrusts, the commander ot 
instructor opens his ranks and then orders, 

1. By the left (or by the right) — Open files. 

2. March. 

3. Right (or left) — Dress. 

4. Front. 

At the last part of the first command, which is 
open piles, all^face to the left except the first file. 

At the command MARCH, the men step off to- 
gether. The second man from the right, after 
having marched, for the sabre exercise 5 paces, 
halts, fronts by a right face, and dresses on the 
right file who has not moved. The others march 
on, and each one glancing over his right shoulder, 
halts in succession, and fronts when he has arrived 
at his place. The rear rank men regulate them- 
selves by their file-leaders, and remain exactly 
behind them. 

When the third man from the right has fronted, the 
instructor dresses the front rank ; the assistant instructor 
dresses the rear rank, and the instructor commands 

FRONT. 

When the instructor wishes to form the platoon, he 
commands : 

1. To the right (or to the left) — Close FILES. 

2. March. 

At the last part of the first command, which is 
close iiLES, the men all face to the right (or left), 
except the file on which they close. 



40 THE TROOPER. 

At the command march, they step off together, 
and each one fronts in succession by a right face 
(or left face), when he has closed up to the man 
who precedes him. 

After the ranks are formed, the instructor closes and 
dresses them. 

At first the motions are executed in detail by the num- 
bers ; but when the troopers execute all the motions with 
regularity, the instructor requires each cut to be given 
without decomposing it ; the last syllable of a command 
is the signal for the quick execution of it. All the cuts 
are then terminated by a half-mouHnet, which brings 
back to the position of guard. 

The objects of the moulinet is to render the joints of the 
arm and wrists supple, and as it adds to the confidence of 
the men when isolated, by increasing their dexterity, 
they should first be exercised at it, as a preparation for 
the other motions. 

Each lesson is therefore commenced and ended with 
moulinets, executed with a quickness proportioned to the 
progress of the troopers. The instructor pays particular 
attention that the men do not employ a degree of force in 
the sabre exercise, which not only is less necessary than 
skill and suppleness, but which is even prejudicial. He 
observes, also, that they do not lean to one side, in such 
a manner as to lose the seat when mounted ; he requires 
more especially, in the motions of the sabre to the rear, 
that the blade shall not fall too near the body, for fear 
of wounding the horse. In describing a circle, the flat of 
the blade should be to the side and the edge to the front, 
and it should be so directed as not to touch either the 
horse's head, or his haunches, or the knees of the rider. 

Thrusts should always be used in preference, as they 
require less force, and their result is more prompt, sure, 
and decisive. They should be directed quickly home to 
the body of the adversary, the sabre being held with the 
full grasp, the thumb pressing against the guard in the 
direction of the blade. 



THE TROOPER. 41 

The parries against the lance are the same as against 
the point. 

The instructor explains what is meant by right and 
left side of the gripe; by tierce and by quarte. 

The right side of the gripe is the side opposite to the 
guard. 

The left side of the gripe is the side next to the guard. 

Tierce is the position in which the edge of the blade is 
turned to the right, the nails downwards. 

Quarte is the position in which the edge of the blade 
is turned to the left, the nails upwards. 

To rest, the instructor conforms to what is prescribed. 
In this case, he causes the sabre to be returned. 

Sabre exercise. 

The troopers being placed as prescribed, the instructor 
orders the sabres to be drawn. 

He commands : 

Guard. 

1 time. 

At the command guard, carry the right foot 2 

feet from the left, the heels on the same line; place 

the left hand closed, 6 inches from the body, and as 

high as the elbow, the fingers towards the body, the 

little finger nearer than the thumb (position of the 

bridle hand); at the same time, place the right 

hand in tierce at the height of, and 3 inches from, 

the left hand, the thumb extended on the back of 

the gripe, the little finger by the side of the others, 

the point of the sabre inclined to the left, and 2 

feet higher than the hand. 
4* 



42 THE TROOPER. 

Left Moulinet. 

1 time, 2 motions. 

1. At the last part of the command, 'which is 
moulinet, extend the right arm to the front, to its 
full length, the hand in tierce and as high as the 
eyes. 

2. Lower the blade in rear of the left elbow; 
graze the horse's neck quickly, describing a circle 
from rear to front, and return to the position of 
guard. 

Eight — Moulinet. 

1 time. 2 motions. 

1. At the last part of the command, which is 
moulinet, extend the right arm to the front to its 
full length, the hand in quarte, and as high as the 
eyes. 

2. Lower the blade in rear of the right elbow ; 
graze the horse's neck quickly, describing a circle 
from rear to front, and return to the position of 
guard. 

To execute the moulinet without stopping, if the in- 
structor wishes to begin by the left, he commands : 

Left and right — Moulinet. 

1 time, 2 motions. 

If he wishes to begin by the right, he commands : 

Eight and left — MOULINET. 

1 time, 2 motions. 

At either of these commands, the troopers, com- 
mencing from the position of guard, execute alter- 



THE TROOPER. 43 

nately what is laid down, without stopping at any 
motion. 

Bear — Moulinet. 
1 time, 2 motions. 

1. At the last part of the command which is 
moulinet, raise the arm to the right and rear to 
its full extent, the point of the sabre upwards, the 
edge to the right, the thumb extended on the back 
of the gripe, the body slightly turned to the right. 

2. Describe a circle in rear from left to right, the 
hand as far as possible from the body, and return to 
the position of guard. 

When the troopers execute the moulinets well, the in- 
structor requires them to execute several in succession, 
until the command guard. 

In tierce — Point. 

1 time, 3 motions. 

1. At the last part of the command, which is 
POINT, raise the hand in tierce as high as the eyes, 
throw back the right shoulder, carrying the elbow 
to the rear, the point of the sabre to the front, the 
edge upwards. 

2. Thrust to the front, extending the arm to its 
full length. 

3. Return to the position of guard. 

In quarte — PoIjNT. 

1 time, 3 motions. 

1. At the last part of the command, which is 
point, lower the hand in quarte near the right hip, 



44 THE TROOPER. 

the thumb extended on the right side of the gripe, 
the point a little higher than the wrist.* 

2. Thrust to the front, extending the arm to its 
full length. 

3. Return to the position of guard. 

Left — Point. 
1 time, 3 motions. 

1. At the last part of the command, which is 
point, turn the head to the left, draw back the 
hand in tierce towards the right, at the height of 
the neck, the edge upwards, the point directed to 
the left. 

2. Thrust to the left, extending the arm to its 
full length. 

3. Return to the position of guard. 

Eight — Point. 
1 time, 3 motions. 

1. At the last part of the command, which is 
point, turn the head to the right, carry the hand 
in quarte near the left breast, the edge upwards, 
the point directed to the right. 

2. Thrust to the right, extending the arm to its 
full length. 

3. Return to the position of guard. 

*The first position of the hand is with the finger-nails 
turned towards the hip, the edge ofthe sabre downward; 
as the thrust is made, the edge is turned to the left and 
the nails brought forward. 



THE TROOPER. 45 

Rear — Point. 
1 time, 3 motions. 

1. At the last part of the command, which J s 
point, turn the head to the right and rear, bring 
the hand in quarte opposite to the right shoulder, 
the arm half extended, the blade horizontal, the 
point to the rear, the edge upwards. 

2. Thrust to the rear, extending the arm to its 
full length. 

3. Return to the position of guard. 

Against infantry left — Point. 
1 time, 3 motions. 

1. At the last part of the command, which is 
point, turn the head to the left, raise the hand in 
tierce near the*neck, the point of the sabre directed 
at the height of the breast of a man on foot. 

2. Thrust down in tierce. 

3. Return to the position of guard. 

Against infantry right — Point. 

1 time, 3 motions. 

1. At the last part of the command, which is 
point, turn the head to the right, carry the hand 
in quarte near the right hip, the point of the sabre 
directed at the height of the breast of a man on 
foot. 

2. Thrust in quarte. 

3. Return to the position of guard. 



46 THE TROOPER. 

Front — Cut. 
1 time, 3 motions. 

1. At the last part of the command, which is 
cut, raise the sabre, the arm half extended, the 
hand a little above the head, the edge upwards, the 
point to the rear and higher than the hand. 

2. Cut, extending the arm to its full length. 

3. Return to the position of guard. 

Left— Cut. 
1 time, 3 motions. 

1. At the last part of the command, which is 
cut, turn the head to the left, raise the sabre, the 
arm extended to the right, the hand in quarte, and 
as high as the head, the point higher than the 
hand. 

2. Cut diagonally to the left. 

3. Return to the position of guard. 

Right — Cut. 
1 time, 3 motions. 

1. At the last part of the command, which is 
cut, turn the head to the right, carry the hand 
opposite to the left shoulder, the point of the sabre 
upwards, the edge to the left. 

2. Extend the arm quickly to its full length, 
give a back-handed cut horizontally. 

3. Return to the position of guard. 

The cuts are also used against infantry, observing to 
direct them downward. 



THE TROOPER. 47 

Rear — Out. 
1 time, 3 motions. 

1. At the last part of the command, which is 
CUT, turn the head to the right, throwing back the 
right shoulder ; carry the hand as high as, and op- 
posite to the left shoulder, the sabre perpendicular, 
the edge to the left. 

2. Extend the arm quickly to its full length, and 
give a back-handed cut horizontally to the rear. 

8. Return to the position of guard. 

Right, in tierce and quarte — Cur. 
1 time, 4 motions. 

1. At the last part of the command, which is 
CUT, execute the 1st motion of right cut. 

2. Execute the 2d motion of right exit. 

3. Turn the hand in quarte, and cut horizontally. 

4. Return to the position of guard. 

Left in quarte and tierce — Cut. 

1 time, 4 motions. 

1. At the last part of the command, which is 
cut, execute the 1st motion of left cut. 
Z. Execute the 2d motion of left cut. 

3. Turn the hand in tierce, and cut horizontally. 

4. Return to the position of guard. 

Rear, in tierce and quarte — Cut. 

1 time, 4 motions. 

1. At the last part of the command, which is 
CUT, execute the 1st motion of rear cut. 



48 THE TROOPER. 

2. Execute the 2d motion of rear cut. 

3. Turn the hand in quarte, and cut horizontally. 

4. Return to the position of guard. 

In tierce — Parry. 

1 time, 2 motions. 

1. At the last part of the command, which is par- 
ry, carry the hand quickly a little to the front and 
right, the nails downwards, without moving the 
elbow ; the point inclined to the front as high as 
the eyes, and in the direction of the right shoulder; 
the thumb extended on the back of the gripe, and 
pressing against the guard. 

2. Return to the position of guard. 

In quarte — Parry. 
1 time, 2 motions. 

1. At the last part of the command, which is 
parry, turn the hand and carry it quickly to the 
front and left, the nails upwards, the edge to the 
left, the point inclined to the front, as high as the 
eyes, and in the direction of the left shoulder ; the 
thumb extended on the back of the gripe, and 
resting against the guard. 

2. Return to the position of guard. 

For the head — Parry. 

1 time, 2 motions. 

1. At the last part of the command, which is 
parry, raise the sabre quickly above the head, the 



THE TROOPER. 49 

arm nearly extended, the edge upwards, the point 
to the left, and about 6 inches higher than the 
hand. 

The hand is carried more or less to the right, left, or 
rear, according to the position of the adversary. 

2. Keturn to the position of guard. 

Against infantry right — Parry. 
1 time, 3 motions. 

1. At the last part of the command, which is 
parry, turn the head to the right, throwing back 
the right shoulder, raise the sabre, the arm ex- 
tended to the right and rear, the point upwards, 
the hand in tierce, the thumb extended on the back 
of the gripe, the edge to the left. 

2. Describe a circle quickly on the right from 
rear to front, the arm extended ; turn aside the 
bayonet with the back of the blade, bringing the 
hand as high as the head, the point upwards. 

3. Return to the position of guard. 

Against infantry left — Parry. 
1 time, 3 motions. 

1. At the last part of the command, which is par- 
ry, turn the head to the left, raise the sabre, the arm 
extended to the front and right, the point upwards, 
the hand in tierce, the thumb extended on the back 
of the gripe, the back of the blade to the front. 

2. Describe a circle quickly on the left, from 
front to rear along the horse's neck, the arm ex- 

5 



50 THE TROOPER. 

tended ; turn aside the bayonet with the back of 
the blade, bringing the hand, still in tierce, above 
the left shoulder. 

3. Return to the position of guard. 

When the troopers begin to execute correctly the above 
cut?, thrusts and parries, the instructor requires them to 
make the application of them by combined motions, as 
follows : 

In tierce — Point and front cut. 

In quarte — Point AND FRONT CUT. 

Left — Point and cut. 

Right — Point and cut. 

Rear — Point and cut. 

Against infantry right — Point and cut.' 

Against infantry left — Point and cut. 

Carry — Sarre. 

As it is prescribed, and carry the right foot by 
the side of the left. 

After the troopers have acquired the sabre-exercise on 
foot, they must practice it on horseback, at all the gaits. 

Of course it would lie better to study the sabre-man- 
ual under the instruction of a skillful swordsman, but as 
perfect accuracy is not essential, the trooper may acquire 
all that is necessary by attention to the rules given, and 
frequent practice. 

Manual for Colt's revolver. 

The preliminary instructions in the use of the 
Revolver should always be given on foot, but the 
following Manual will apply equally well either 



THE TROOPER. 51 

on foot or mounted. In the instruction on foot, 
the trooper should be brought to the position of 
"guard" in the sabre exercise, so as to assimilate 
his motions to those he will execute when mounted. 
In the following Manual for Colt's revolver, the 
term "holster" is applied equally to the holster of 
the saddle or its substitute on the belt. 

The trooper being in position, the instructor will 
command : 

Draw pistol. 
1 time, 2 motions. 

1. At the command, unbuckle the Jiolste.r, seize 
the ' pistol by the handle with the last three fingers 
and palm of the hand, the fore-finger extended out- 
side the holster, so as to be placed on the guard 
when the pistol is partially withdrawn, the thumb 
on the back of the handle. 

2. At the command "two," draw the pistol from 
the holster, placing the fore-finger on the guard ; 
raise it, placing the right wrist at the height and 6 
inches in front of the right shoulder ; the barrel 
of the pistol perpendicular, guard to the front. 

To load the pistol the instructor will command: 

Load in six times. — 1 load. 

1 time, 2 motions. 

1. Place the pistol in the left hand, the little 
finger on the point of the hey, the muzzle inclined 
to the left, and front and upwards at' an angle of 
sixty degrees to the horizon, half cock the pistol 



52 THE TROOPER. 

with the right thumb, the right hand grasping the 
handle. 

2. Let go the pistol with the left hand, turn it 
with the right, and seize it with the left ; the ham- 
mer between the thumb and fore-finger, the middle 
finger on the guard, the last two fingers and palm 
of the hand grasping the handle, and carry the 
right hand to the cartridge box, and open it. 

2. Handle cartridge. 

1 time, 1 motion. 

Take a cartridge from the box with the thumb 
and first two fingers and carry it to the mouth. 

8. Tear cartridge. 

Tear off the end of the cartridge with the teeth 
and carry it opposite the chamber nearest the lever 
and on the side next the trooper. 

4. Charge cartridge. 

1 time, 1 motion. 

Empty the powder into the chamber and press 
the ball in with the fore-finger, seize the end of the 
lever with the thumb and two first fingers of the 
right hand. 

5. Ram cartridge. 

1 time, 1 motion. 

Brina; down the lever with the risrhthand, at the 
same time turning the cylinder with the thumb and 
fore-finger of the left, until the charged chamber 



THE TROOPER. 53 

comes in prolongation of the lever, ram home the 
charge and carry the right hand to the cartridge 
box, leaving the lever in the charged chamber. 

Repeat as ahove until all the chambers are charged, 
and after charging the last one return the lever, the 
thumb and two first fingers remaining on the end 
of it. 

6. Prime. 

1 time, 2 motions. 

1. Seize the handle of the pistol with the right 
hand below the left, turn it with the guard to the 
front, muzzle to the left and front, and elevated 
sixty degrees above the horizon, and place it in the 
left hand, the little finger on the point of the key ; 
turn the cylinder with the right hand until it 
clicks, and carry the right hand to the cap box and 
open it. 

2. Take a cap, press it on the exposed cone, turn 
the cylinder again until it clicks, and carry the right 
hand again to the cap box. 

Repeat the second motion until the priming is 
completed; then seize the pistol at the handle with 
the right hand, let down the hammer, and bring the 
pistol to the second position of "draw pistol." 

To fire the pistol the instructor will command : 

Ready. 

1 time, 2 motions. 

1. Place the pistol in the left hand, the little 
finger touching the hey, the muzzle to the left and 
5* 



54 THE TROOPER. 

front, and elevated at an angle of sixty degrees to 
the horizon, the guard under, the thumb on the 
cock, the fore-finger on the guard. 

2. Cock the pistol with the thumb and return to 
the second position oi "draw pistol." 

Aim. 
1 time, 1 motion. 

Lower the muzzle and carry the right hand to the 
front of the neck, half extending the right arm, 
place the fore-finger lightly on the trigger, close 
the left eye and aim horizontally. 

Fire. 
1 time, 1 motion. 

Press the fore-finger gradually, but quickly on 
the trigger, fire and return to the second position 
of "draw pistol." 

Should the instructor desire to have all the charges 
fired, he will give an intimation to that effect, and after 
bringing the trooper to the position of "ready" he will 
command : 

1. Aim. 2. Fire. 

Which will be executed as prescribed. After 
firing the first charge, the troopers will go through 
the motions of "ready" "aim," and "fire" and 
so continue until the last charge is fired, when they 
will return to the second position of "draw pistol." 

To load without observing the times and motions, the 
instructor will command : 



the trooper. 55 

1. Load at will. 2. Load. 

Load the pistol as prescribed. Prime and return 
to the second position of " draw pistol." 

When the troopers execute the manual well, 
they will be instructed to come to the position of 
" ready," as follows : 

The instructor will, command : 

Ready. 

1 time, 1 motion. 

Move the right hand 6 inches to the front, at 
the same time lowering the muzzle to an angle of 
sixty degrees with the horizon, cock the pistol with 
the right thumb, aad return to the second position 
of " draw pistol." 

The trcoper having been well instructed in the "man- 
ual" on foot, should be made to repeat it mounted, first 
at a halt, and afterwards at the different gaits, but the 
progression in the instruction should be slow. Every 
trooper should be made to execute all the motions well 
at each gait before passing to a more rapid one. 

Aiming, and especially at rapid gaits, requires some 
remark. Aiming should be practiced to the right, left , 
front and rear In aiming to the right, left or front, at 
the gallop, or at speed, the trooper should rise a little in. 
the stirrups and incline the body slightly to the front: the 
arm should be half extended and the body turned in the 
direction of the object aimed at. In aiming to the rear, 
the right shoulder should be well thrown back and the 
right arm extended to its full length. 

Firing should, at first, be executed with the greatest 
care and deliberation. The "target" should be 8 feet 
high and 3 feet wide, with a vertical' andahorizontal line, 



56 THE TROOPER. 

each an inch wide, intersecting at the height "of 5 feet. 
The vertical line should pass through the centre of the 
target. The troopers should be formed in front of, facing, 
and at a distance of 100 paces from the target. The 
firing should at first be executed at the distance of 10 
paces, but the distance should be gradually increased to 
40 paces. A peg in front of the target will mark the 
point from which the trooper is to fire. 

To commence the firing, the instructor will cause the 
trooper on the right to move 5 paces to the front, turn to 
the right, move 30 paces to the front, turn to the left, 
move to the front until he arrives abreast of the peg in 
front of the target, then turn to the left and move to the 
front until he comes opposite the target, turn toward it, 
cock the pistol, aim and fire deliberately ; then turn to the 
left, move 30 paces to the front, turn to the left again and 
pass to the rear of the troop, reload and take his place on 
the left of the rank. To fire to the right, the trooper ex- 
ecutes what he did in firing to the front, except that he 
does not turn towards the target when he comes in front 
of it. To fire to the left the instructor causes the trooper 
on the left to execute, inversely, what the trooper on the 
right executed in firing to the right. To fire to the rear, 
the trooper on the right executes what he did in firing to 
the front, except that he turns from the target instead of 
towards it, and aims to the rear. The points where the 
tjroopers are required to turn in the exercise will be. 
marked by pegs. At first, but one chamber of the pistol 
should be discharged by each trooper, and great care 
should be taken to guard against frightening the horses. 
The troopers should be cautioned to be gentle with them, 
and soothe them when excited. When a young horse is 
very timid, he should be accompanied by one which has 
courage. When the troopers are sufficiently instructed in 
the exercise, and control their horses well, tkree or more 
targets should be used. They should at first beplacedon 
the same line, and 100 paces apart; but the distance 
should be gradually reduced to SO paces. 



THE TROOPER. 57 

To load tlie repeating rifle (or carbine.) 

Follow the directions given for the repeating or 
revolver pistol, with such slight modifications as the 
difference in size and shape of the weapons will suggest 
to the instructor. 

To load with powder and ball. 

The commands are: 

Load in 5 times. 

1. Load. 

2. Handle cartridge. 

3. Charge cartridge. 

4. Eam cartridge. 

5. Prime. 

All of which are executed as directed, except 
that at the second command, the right hand grasps 
the flask and brings the charger to the chamber ; 
and at the third command, the powder being intro- 
duced, the same hand, letting go the flask, quickly 
' inserts the ball on the powder. 

But, in loading the rifle or carbine, the previ- 
ous command, instead of DRAW pistol, is ADVANCE 
carbine or advance rifle, which is executed as 
in the manual of the breech loader. 



58 THE TROOPER. 

Manual of the breech-loader. 

The rifle being suspended at the back, muzzle down- 
ward, by the shoulder-strap from left to right. The in- 
structor commands : 

Advance rifle. 

Seize the rifle at the small of the stock with the 
right hand ; place the butt on the right thigh and 
across it; the barrel sloping easily forward. 

To load the rifle. 

The commands are : 

load in 8 times. 

1. Load. 3. Prime. 

2. Charge cartridge. 

At the word "load," place the piece quickly in 
the left hand, which, holding the reins, grasps the 
gun near and below the band; the muzzle upward 
and pointing to the left; butt downward, to the 
right and near the right hip; the right hand seizes 
the lever; (2d,) opens the breech; (3d,) opens the 
cartridge-box. 

At the command, "Charge cartridge," put 
the cartridge in the chamber, shut the breech by 
pressing the lever firmly ; then half-cock, brush off 
the old cap, and open the cap-box; each motion 
with the right hand and in the order prescribed. 

At the word "Prime," place the cap, press it 
on the nipple with the right thumb, let the cock 
gently down, and with the right hand grasp the 
small of the stock. 



THE TROOPER 59 

To load the self-priming breech loader. 

The commands are : 

Load in 2 times, 
1. Load. 2. Charge cartridge. 

Which are executed as above. 

If the intention is to fire immediately alter load- 
ing, the word "ready" is given. 

At this command, promptly cock the rifle with 
the right hand, and place it in the position of ad- 
vance rifle. 

Next, the word 

Aim. 

At which the piece is leveled, with the butt 
against the right shoulder; lei't eye closed, the 
right cast along the sights; the right fore-finger 
lightly touching the trigger; the barrel resting on 
the bridle-hand. 

Fire. 

At this word, discharge the piece, but remain at 
the position of aim. 

If the intention is to load after firing, the word 
"load," is given and executed by the times as 
before, or the command, 

Load at will. 

At this command, the troopers load without the 
times, or separate commands, and then advance 
rifles. 

If the design is not to reload, instead of the 
command load, advance rifles is ordered. 



60 THE TROOPER. 

The instructor must not allow the pieces to be held in 
the position of aim more than a moment before giving 
the next following command; and. until the horses are 
accustomed to firing, the pieces should be advanced 
after being discharged, or held at will. 

Not intending to fire after aiming, the instructor 
■will order ADVANCE RIFLE, (or recover arms, when 
dismounted.*) 

Intending to handle the sabre or pistol, the com- 
mand is, DROP RIFLE. 

At which the trooper lowers the muzzle, butt 
upward, the piece behind him. 

For inspection of sabre, see sabre-manual. 

To inspect the revolver-pistol. 

The command is: 

Inspection of pistol. 

At which the trooper dru us pistol; (2d,) turns 
his hand, bringing first the right and then the left 
side toward the inspector; (3d,) he returns pistol 
without farther command. 

To return pistol at the word. 

The command is: 

Eeturn pistol. 

At whieh it is passed below the reins into the 
saddle-holster; if the belt or side-holster is meant, 
it must be named. 



THE TROOPER. 61 

To inspect the breech-loader on horse- 
back. 

The command is : 

Inspection of rifle (or carbine.) 

At which the piece is brought to the advance ; 
(2d,) turned to exhibit the other side ; and (3d,) 
dropped as directed. 

In preparing to mount or dismount, the rifle or carbine 
is passed over the right shoulder, as directed in the arti- 
cles on that subject. 

For further instruction in the mounted rifle exercise, 
see Skirmish Drill in the sequel. 

The position of raise pistol is that of the second motion 
of draw pistol ; see Manual. 



CAVALEY TACTICS. 



IP-A-IRT SECOND. 



%\t platoon §rill. 

The platoon is composed of either 12 or 16 
files, according to the numbers present. 

This requires 24 or 32 troopers in two ranks ; 
12 or 16 in one rank. > 

The right and left flank-men are corporals ; but, 
in two ranks, the rear flank-men are privates. 

The chief of platoon (lieutenant or sergeant) is 
posted, when in line, one pace (that is, one yard) 
in front of the centre; this is measured from the 
heads of the front horses to the croup or tail of the 
horse of the chief. 

The senior sergeant one pace behind the third 
file from the right ; the second sergeant on the right 
of the corporal of the right flank ; this sergeant is 
right particular guide, and not counted in the fours; 
the third sergeant on the left of the left corporal ; 
the third sergeant of a single platoon is counted off. 



THE PLATOON. 63 

But when two, three or four platoons are organized 
as a squadron, or fraction of a squadron, the left 
sergeant is left particular yuide, and not counted. 

But, in this case, the first and second sergeants 
are the principal guides; they are posted beh, nd 
the third file from each flank. The third and 
fourth sergeants are the particular guides respec- 
tively of the right and left. 

All non-commissioned officers, excepting theprin- 
cipal and particular guides, and those commanding 
platoons, are counted in the fours. 

The rank and file, composed of all except officers, 
chiefs of platoon and guides principal and particu- 
lar, are counted or told off into fours. 

On the left of the first and right of the second 
platoon are sergeants, who are counted, and covered 
by rear-rank men ; when these sergeants are absent, 
corporals take their places. 

The file-closers are one yard in rear of the platoon 
or troop j the principal guides are the file-closers of 
the right and left. 

Two platoons are a division or company ; its chief 
(like the chief of squadron) is posted, when in line, 
one yard in front of the centre of his command. 

The organization of the division, troop or com- 
pany, is as follows : 

Posts of Officers and Non-Commissioned 
Officers of a Company acting singly. 

The Captain in front of the centre, one pace dis- 
tant from the front rank. 



64 THE PLATOON. 

The 1st Lieutenant in rear of the centre, in the 
rank of file-closers. 

The 2d Lieutenant commands the first platoon ; 
in the absence of a 3d Lieutenant the 2d platoon is 
commanded by the senior Sergeant. The chiefs of 
platoons are posted one pace in front of the centre 
of tbeir respective platoons. 

The 1st Sergeant in rear of the right, in the rank 
of file-closers. 

The 2d and 3d Sergeants on the right and left of 
the troop, not told off. 

A non-commissioned officer is posted on the left 
of the 1st platoon, and on the right of the 2d. 

Corporals, next to the Sergeants who are on the 
flanks of platoons. 

The Saddler and Farrier in rear of the left of 
the troop 8 paces retired from the line of file- 
closers; and the Buglers 20 paces in rear of the 
centre. 



Posts of the Officers and Non-Commis- 
sioned Officers of a Squadron in line. 

The Captain commanding is posted at the centre 
of the squadron, the croup of his horse one pace 
in front of the heads of the horses of the front 
rank. 

The 2d Captain 3 paces in rear of the centre of 
the squadron. He is charged with the alignment 
of the rear rank and file-closers. 

The senior 1st Lieutenant commands the 1st 



THE PLATOON. 65 

platoon, the other 1st Lieutenant commands the 4th 
platoon. 

The senior 2d Lieutenant commands the 2d pla- 
toon, the other 2d Lieutenant commands the 3d 
platoon. 

Each of these officers is posted at the centre of 
his platoon, with the croup of his horse one pace 
in front of the heads of the horses of the front 
rank. 

The senior Sergeant is posted behind the 3d file 
from the right of the 1st platoon ; he is the princi- 
pal guide when the column of squadrons is left in 
front. 

The 2d Sergeant behind the 3d file from the left 
of the 4th platoon ; he is principal guide when the 
column of squadrons is right in front. 

The 3d Sergeant is posted on the right of the 
front rank of the squadron ; he is not counted in 
the rank. 

The 4th Sergeant on the left of the front rank; 
he is not counted in the rank. 

The 5th Sergeant on the left of the 1st platoon. 

The 6th Sergeant on the right of the 2d platoon. 

The 7th Sergeant on the left of the 3d platoon. 

The 8th Sergeant on the right of the 4th platoon. 

The heads of the horses of all the file-closers 
are at one pace from the croup of those of the rear 
rank. 

The Corporals are posted in the front rank, on 
the right and left of their respective platoons, and 
supply the places of Sergeants when necessary. 

When guidons are used, they are carried by the 

5* 



66 THE PLATOON. 

non-commissioned officers on the left of the 1st 
and 3d platoons. 

The flag of the guidon is swallow-tailed, 3 feet 5 inches 
from the lance to the end of the swallow-tail; 15 inches 
to the fori;, and 2 feet 3 inches measured on the lance. 
Half red and half white ; the red above. On the red the 
arms of the State or the initial letters. On the white the 
letter, number, or name of the company. 

The lances of standards and guidons are nine feet 
long, including spear and ferule. 

The Squadron in column in twos or 
fours. 

The Captains commanding march on the side of 
the guides, and 4 paces from the flank, and abreast 
of the centre of their squadrons. 

The second Captains march on the side opposite 
to the guides, 4 paces from the flank, and abreast 
of the centre of their squadrons. 

The 1st Lieutenant of each squadron marches at 
the head of the 1st platoon, one pace in advance of 
the first files, having the particular guide of the 
right on his right. 

The chiefs of the other platoons march on the 
side of the guides, one pace from the flank of the 
column, and abreast of their first files; the file- 
closers march on the side opposite to the guide, 
one pace from the flank, and on a line with the 
centre of their platoons. 

They all march in a similar manner on the 
flanks of the column when the left is in front ; and, 
in this case, it is the junior 1st Lieutenant who 
marches in the column at the head of the 4th pla- 
toon of each squadron. 



THE PLATOON. 67 

i 

The particular guide, who in line is posted on 
the left of the squadron, marches behind the last 
files of the squadron ; when the column is left in 
front, he takes post on the left of the officer com- 
manding the 4th platoon, one pace in front of the 
left file. 

When the nature of the ground obliges the offi- 
cers and file-closers to enfer the column, the move- 
ment is made successively ; the Captains command- 
ing, and the chiefs of platoons, place themselves at 
the head ; the second Captains and the file-closers, 
in rear of their respective troops. 



Order in column of Platoons. 



In this order, the distance from one platoon to 
another, measured from the men of one front rank 
to those of another front rank, is equal to the front 
of a platoon; that is to say, it is 12 paces if the 
platoons are of twelve files. Subtracting the depth 
of two ranks, which is 6 paces, there remain 6 
paces from the croup of the horses ot the rear rank 
of one platoon, to the heads of the horses of the 
front rank of the next platoon, a distance which is 
equal to half of the front of a platoon. 

In single rank formation, subtracting 3 paces 
or yards from 12, there remain 9 yards as the dis- 
tance between platoons from head to croup ; or with 
platoons of 16 troopers, 13 yards. 

The Captains commanding march on the side of 
the guides, four paces from the flank* 1 of the col- 



68 THE PLATOON. 

umn, and habitually abreast of the centre of their 
squadrons. 

The second Captains march on the side opposite 
to the guide, 4 paces from the flank of the column, 
and abreast of the centre of their squadrons. 

The 1st and 2d Lieutenants march at the centre 
of their platoons, one pace from the front rank; 
other chiefs of platoon in front of centre of pla- 
toons ; those who command the platoons at the 
head of squadrons, preserve, besides their distance, 
the ground necessary to enable each squadron, in 
wheeling into line, to maintain its interval. 

The Sergeants, who are file-closers, march en the 
side opposite to the guides, behind the third file of 
their platoons. 

When the column marches right in front, the 
particular guide of the right of each squadron 
marches on the right of the 1st platoon ; and the 
particular guide on the left places himself as file- 
closer behind the 2d file from the left of the 4th 
platoon. 

The post of these Sergeants is the reverse when 
the left is in front. 

The squadron being composed of 64 files, when 
it is broken into sections, the 1st Lieutenant of 
each squadron marches at the head of the 1st sec- 
tion of the 1st platoon ; the chiefs of the other pla- 
toons remain on the side of the guides, one pace 
from and on a line with the front rank of their 1st 
section. 

The file-closers who command the 2d sections, 
march on the side opposite to the guides, one pace 
from and on a line with the front rank. 



THE PLATOON. 69 

The posts of the commandants of sections is the 
reverse when the left is in front. 

Column of divisions (or companies.) 

The Captains are posted as in column of platoons. 

The senior 1st Lieutenant commands the 1st 
division, the other 1st Lieutenant the 2d ; they re- 
main, however, at the centre of their platoons. 

All the other officers and Sergeants of each divi- 
sion are posted as prescribed in the order in column 
of platoons, the file-closers remaining in their places, 
on whatsoever side the guide may be. 

There being a sufficient number of officers and troopers 
present, they may be formed as a division oT squadron, 
and the various posts taken as directed; but before at- 
tempting the drill of the squadron, that of the platoon 
must be well understood. 1 If competent officers can be 
found for the purpose, each Instructor and assistant 
should be limited to 12 or 16 men. But this not being 
always possible, 2 or more platoons maybe instructed by 
ONE officer and one assistant, the whole for the pres- 
ent forming one single platoon. The other officers may re- 
main at the posts assigned them, or, for the time being, 
ride in the rank of file-closers. 

The drill-call being sounded, the horses are conducted 
to the drill-ground, as directed in the first lesson, none 
being mounted but the instructor and assistant. The 
former commands : 

ATTENTION! 

IN TWO RANKS, 

FORM PLATOON. 

To form company or squadron, those words will be sub- 
stituted for '• platoon." To form in one rank, one rank 
will be named instead of too. 



70 THE PLATOON. 

At the last command, the flank Sergeants (guides of 
the ri^bt and left) will take post at the flanks of the pro- 
posed line ; the 1st Corporal on the left of the right guide ; 
the 2d Corporal on the right of the left guide ; the tallest 
trooper (man and horse considered) will take his place 
on the left of the 1st Corporal, and the lowest on the 
right of the 2d Corporal; the next tallest will cover the 
1st Corporal, and the next lowest the 2d Corporal ; these 
latter being of the rear rank, will form six yards behind 
the Corporals. 

Thus the platoon will be formed with the tallest on 
the right. 

The file-closers are six yards in rear, posted as direct- 
ed ; the assistant instructor ten yards in front of centre, 
facing the platoon. 

The instructor, posted where his presence is most 
wanted, commands: 

1. Attention. 3 Front. 

2. Right — Dress. 

He then commands : 

In each rank — Count (by) fours. 

At the last part of the command, which is fours, 
the men count in each rank, from right to left, pro- 
nouncing in a loud and distinct voice, in the same 
tone, without hurry, and without turning the head ; 
One, two, three, four, according to the place which 
each one occupies. 

The troopers then mount by the times, and without 
explanation. 

At the command form — ranks, the assistant- 
instructor moves forward, turns to the right-about, 
and places himself at the centre of the platoon, the 
croup of his horse one pace from the head of the 



THE PLATOON. 71 

horses of the front rank. The file-closers follow 
the rear rank. 

General principles of alignment. 

The troopers, to align themselves, should regu- 
late their shoulders upon those of the men on the 
side of the alignment, and fix the eyes upon the 
line of the eyes, so as to perceive the breast of the 
the second trooper of their rank on the side of the 
alignment ; for this purpose, they should turn the 
head, remaining square upon their horses, feel 
lightly the boot of the man on the side of the 
align ie en t, and keep the horses straight in the 
ranks that all may have a parallel direction. 

The troopers of the rear rank, independently of 
the alignment, should be exactly behind their file- 
leaders, and in the same direction, taking care to 
preserve the distance of 2 feet from head to croup. 

Successive alignment of files in the 
platoon. 

The two files of the right or of the left are moved for- 
ward 10 paces, and. aligned parallel to the platoon by the 
commands: 1. Two files from right (or left) forward ; 
2. March ; 3. Halt ; 4. Right (or left) — Dress ; 5. Front. 
The instructor then commands: 

1. By file right (or left) — Dress. 

'1. Front. 
At the last part of the first command, which is 
dress, each file moves forward successively and 
steadily, the troopers turning the head to th@ right, 



72 THE PLATOON. 

and taking the last steps slowly, in order to arrive 
abreast of the files already formed without passing 
beyond the alignment, observing then to halt, give 
the hand, relax the legs, and keep the head to the 
right until the command front. 

Each file executes the same movement when the 
preceding one has arrived on the base of alignment, 
so that only one file may align itself at the same 
time. 

At the command front, turn the head to the 
front. 

The instructor gives the command front when the 
last file is aligned. 

When the troopers execute correctly these alignments, 
ibis instruction is repeated in giving the two files of the 
right an oblique direction. For this purpose, the two 
files having marched forward 4 paces, as has been pre- 
scribed, execute a half-turn to the right, or the left, and 
march 6 paces in this new direction. 

The platoon being unmasked, the remainder of the 
movement is executed by the commands and following 
the principles prescribed ; each file, as it arrives nearly 
opposite the place it is to occupy, executes a half-turn to 
the right, or to the left, so that having left the platoon by 
one straight line, it arrives upon the new alignment by 
another. 

The two files of the right, or of the left, are made to 
rein-back 4 paces, and align themselves parallel to the 
platoon and opposite the place they occupied in it, by 
the commands : 1. Two files from the right (or left) back- 
wards ; 2. March ; 3. Halt ; 4. Right (or left) — Dress ; 
5. Front. The instructor then commands : 

1. By file — right (or left) backwards — Dress. 

2. Front. 



THE PLATOON. 73 

At the last part of the first command, which is 
dress, each file reins back successively, keeping 
perfectly straight, the troopers turning the head to 
the right, and passing a little 'to the rear of the 
files already formed, in order to come up abreast of 
them by a movement to the front, which renders 
the alignment more easy. 

The troopers of the front rank rein back slowly, 
those of the rear rank regulate themselves upon 
the file-leaders, preserving always their proper dis- 
tance. 

At the command front, turn the head to the 
front. 

The alignment to the rear gives the means of repair- 
ing a fault by returning to the alignment when it has 
been passed over ; but it should be avoided as much as 
possible. 

The alignment is then executed by twos (or by fours.) 
For this purpose, the two or four files of the right move 
forward as has been prescribed, and the instructor com- 
mands : 

1. By twos (or by fours) right (or lefty — Dress. 

2. Front. 

At the last part of the first command, which is 
dress, the files align themselves successively by 
twos (or by fours), following the principles pre- 
scribed for the alignment by file, being particular 
to set out and arrive upon the alignment together. 

At the command front, turn the head to the 
front. 

The instructor observes that the troopers align them- 
selves on the breast of the second man.towards the side 

7 



74: THE PLATOON. 

of the alignment, and not upon the extremity of the 
rank (which would prevent their remaining square in 
their seats) ; that they are neither too much opened nor 
closed; and, finally, that those of the rear rank are ex- 
actly behind their file-leaders. The troopers are also 
required to align themselves promptly, that the horses 
may not be kept a long time gathered. 

When a platoon is not aligned, it arises from the fact, 
generally, that the horses are not straight in the ranks. 

When a platoon dresses to. the right, if the left wing 
is in rear, it is presumed that most of the horses are 
turned to the left ; it is necessary to observe if this is 
the case, and to command the troopers to carry the hand 
slightly to the right, at the same time closing the right 
leg, which brings the horse upon the alignment. 

If, after this movement, some of the troopers are still 
too much in rear to perceive the line of the rank, they 
move forward after squaring their horses. 

When a platoon dresses to the right, if the left wing 
is in advance, it is presumed that the horses are turned 
to the right : the troopers are then required to carry the 
hand to the left, closing at the same time the left leg, 
which causes the horse to step back to his proper place. 

If, after this movement, some troopers are still in ad- 
vance, they rein directly back until they can perceive 
only the line of the rank. 

In dressing to the left, the same faults are corrected 

by inverse means. 

r 

During the alignment, the instructor places himself 
in front of the troopers, to be assured that they execute 
the movement steadily, and do not turn the head more 
than is prescribed ; that they do not open the knee in 
order to feel the toot; that they prevent their horses from 
crowding the troopers already lormed ; that they take 
the last steps slowly; that they align themselves without 
losing time as they arrive ; and that they give the hand 
and replace the legs immediately after being aligned. 

For this ex-ercise alone, the assistant instructor is 



THE PLATOON. 75 

placed perpendicularly to the flank qf the platoon, facing 
to the left, if the alignment is to the right, and facing 
to the right, if the alignment is to the left. He observes 
that the troopers halt on the same line, and rectifies the 
alignment in a low voice. At the command front, he 
resumes his place before the platoon. 

The instructor insists upon all these principles ; but 
the alignments will be occasionally interrupted by 
marehes in column, in order to calm the horses. 

Alignment of the platoon. 

The platoon being in line, the instructor places the 
corporal of the flank on which he wishes to align it in. 
such a position that no trooper wall be forced to rein 
back, and commands : 

1. Right (or left) — Dress. 2. Front. 

At the last part of the first command, which is 
bress, all the troopers align themselves promptly, 
but with steadiness. 

At the command front, turn the head to the 
front. 

In all the alignments, the corporal of the opposite 
flank aligns himself promptly on the one towards the 
side of the alignment, without respect to the individual 
alignment of the troopers. 

To open and close the ranks. 

To open the ranks, the instructor commands : 

1. Rear rank open order. 3. Right — Dress. 

2. March. 4. Front. 



76 THE PLATOON. 

At the command march, the front rank remains 
immoveable, the rear rank reins-back 6 paces, each 
trooper preserving the direction of his file-leader. 
The file-closer reins back until he is 6 paces from 
the rear rank. The assistant instructor moves for- 
ward 6 paces, and faces the platoon by a turn-about 
to the left. 

At the command right — dress, the rear rank 
dresses to the right. 

At the command front, turn the head to the 
front. 

To close the rank, the instructor commands : 

1. Rear rank close order. 3. Right — Dress. 

2. March. 4. Front. 

At the command march, the rear rank closes 
upon the front to the distance of 2 feet, each 
trooper taking care to preserve the direction of his 
file-leader. The assistant instructor resumes his 
place at the centre of the platoon by a turn-about 
to the. right, and the file-closer takes his proper dis- 
tance from the rear rank. 

At the command right — dress, the platoon is 
aligned to the right. 

At the command front, turn the head to the 
front. 

To rein-back the platoon. 

The platoon being halted, the instructor commands, 

1. Platoon bachicards. 

2. Guide right (or left.) 

3. March. 



THE PLATOON. 77 

At the command march, all the troopers rein- 
hack at once, regulating their movements by those 
of the guide. 

When the platoon has reined back some steps, the in- 
structor commands: 

1. Platoon. 3. Right (or left) — Dress. 

2. Halt. 4. Front. 

To break the platoon by file. 

The platoon being in line, the instructor commands: 

1. By file. 2. March. 

At the command by file, the troopers of the first 
file gather their horses, and the others successively, 
as soon as the file on the right is in motion. 

At the command mAl.ch, the first file of the 
right moves straight to the front; it is followed by 
the other file ; each file moves off when the 
haunches of the rear rank horse of the file which 
has broken, arrives at the head of the horses of the 
front rank ; each file marches 6 paces straight to 
the front, makes a quarter-turn to the right, and 
inarches in the new direction until it reaches its 
place in the column, when it makes a quarter-turn 
to the left. 

The instructor observes that the troopers gather their 
horses and break successively, only at the moment pre- 
scribed ; that the first file moves straight to the front ; 
that the other files never march less than six paces be- 
fore obliquing, and do not make more than a quarter- 
turn to the right or to the left, in order to rejoin the column. 

7* 



78 THE PLATOON. 

To break the platoon by the left, the movement is ex- 
ecuted following the same principles, but by inverse 
means, at the commands : 

1. By files from the left. 2. March. 

Direct march in column by file. 

The troopers should keep their horses straight, 
and march at a free and equal gait; they should 
keep their eyes to the front, and continue in the 
direction of the column, so as to perceive only the 
trooper who marches before them, to march at the 
same gait with him, preserving always the distance 
of two feet from head to croup, that his own horse 
may not tread upon the heels of the horse in front. 
The distance should be recovered gradually when 
lost. 

The greater the depth of the column, the more atten- 
tion should the instructor pay to the equality of the gaits, 
and the preservation of the distances. 

Change of direction. 

To change the direction, the instructor commands: 
Head of column — Right (or left.) 

At which the assistant instructor orders : 

Eight (or, left) — Turn. 

At the word turn, the leading file turns to the 
left, (or right,) over an arc, or circular path of three 
yards, in a direction perpendicular to the original 
one. All turn in succession at the same point. 



THE PLATOON. 79 

To halt, and to commence the march in 
column. 

The column marching, to halt it the instructor com- 
mands : 

1. Column. 2. Halt. 

At the command halt, the troopers stop to- 
gether in the direction of their file-leaders and at 
their distances, taking care to prevent their horses 
from stepping back. 

To move off, the instructor commands : 

1. Column forward. 2. March. 

At the command march, the troopers move off 
steadily together. 

The column being at a halt, if the instructor 'wishes 
it to commence the move at a trot, he commands: 

Column forward, trot — March. 

The order may then be given either to walk, or 
the halt may be ordered. 

Individual oblique march. 

The column marching by file, the instructor com- 
mands : 

1. Left (or right) oblique. 2. March. 

At the command march, each trooper executes 
a quarter-turn to the left, and moves forward in his 
new direction, all following parallel lines, and regu- 



80 THE PLATOON. 

lating themselves towards the right, in order to 
keep on the same line, and to preserve their dis- 
tances on that side. 

To return to the primitive direction, the instructor 
commands: 

Forward. 

At this command, the troopers return to the ori- 
ginal direction, by a quarter-turn to the right, in 
advancing, and move forward in the direction of 
their file-leaders. 

The platoon marching in column by file, 
to form it to the front, to the left, or 
on right, into line. 

The column marching right in front, to form it to the 
front into line, the instructor 'commands: 

1. Front into line. 4. Right — Dress. 

2. March. 5. Front. 

3. Halt. 

At the command march, the first file continues 
to march straight forward. The others oblique im- 
mediately to the left, march in this new direction, 
and each file makes a quai-ter-turn to the right on 
coming opposite the place he is to occupy in the 
platoon. 

When the first file has marched 20 paces,* the 
instructor commands halt. At this command, it 

*This is increased to 30 paces (yards) in the squad- 
ron drill; it is often much diminished, especially when 
obstacles interfere. 



THE PLATOON. 81 

halts square to the front ; the other files come up 
and form successively on the left of the first, and 
dress to the right. 

At the command front, turn the head to the 
front. 

The instructor gives the command right — dress, im- 
mediately after halt, and commands front when the 
last file is aligned. 

The column marching left in front, the movement is 
executed following the same principles, but by inverse 
means, at the commands: Front into line; 2. March; 
3. Halt ; 4. -Left — Dress ; 5. Front. 

The column marching right in front, to form it into 
line upon its left flank, the instructor commands : 

1. Left into line. 4. Right — Dress. 

2. March. 5. Front. 

3. Halt. 

At the command march, the first file turns ta 
the left and moves straight forward ; the other files 
continue to march on, and at 2 paces before arri- 
ving opposite the place they are to occupy in the 
platoon, they turn successively to the left. 

When the first file has marched 20 paces, the in- 
structor commands halt. At this command it 
halts ; the other files come up and form successively 
on the left of the first, and dress to the right. 

At the command front, turn the head to the front. 

The instructor gives the command right — dress, im- 
mediately after halt, and commands front when the 
last file is aligned. 

He observes that the troopers turn exactly upon the 
point indicated, and before arriving at it do not incline 
to the side of the formation. 



82 THE PLATOON. 

The column marching left in front, to form in line on 
the right flank, the movement is executed, following the 
same principles, but by inverse means, at the com- 
mands : 1. Eight into line ; 2. March ; 3. Halt; 4. Left 
— Dress ; 5. Front. 

When necessary, the front may be made to the left or 
right in less time and space, by the commands, Front, 
Halt. 

The column marching right in front, to form in line 
upon the prolongation and in advance of its right flank, 
the instructor commands : 

1. On right into line. 4. Right — Dress. 

2. March. 5. Front. 

3. Halt. 

At the command march, the first file turns to 
the right and moves straight forward ; the other 
files continue to march on, and each turns succes- 
sively to the right, at one pace beyond the point 
where the one preceding turned. 

When the first file has marched 20 paces, the 
instructor commands halt. At this command it 
halts ; the other files come up and form succes- 
sively on the left of the first, and dress to the right. 

At the command front, turn the head to the 
front. 

The instructor gives the command right — DRESS, im- 
mediately after halt, and commands front when the 
last file is aligned. 

The column marching left in front, to form in line 
upon the prolongation and in advance of its left flank 
the movement is executed, following the same princi- 
ples, but by inverse means, at the commands : 1. On 
left into line; 2. March; 3. Halt; 4. Left — Dress; 5. 
Front. 



THE PLATOON. 83 

In ordering " On right (or on left) into line, strong em- 
phasis is laid on the word On, to prevent the men from 
mistaking this for the previous movement. 

To break the platoon by twos or by 
fours. 

The platoon being in line, the instructor commands: 

1. By twos (or by fours.) 3. Guide left. 

2. March. 

At the command march, the first two or four 
files of the right move straight to the front ; they 
are followed by the other files, who move off when 
the haunches of the horse of the rear rank are on 
a line with the heads of the horses of the front 
rank. These files march straight forward 6 paces, 
execute a quarter turn to the right by trooper, and 
march in this direction until they meet the column, 
when they take their places in it by making a quar- 
ter turn to the left. 

The command guide left, is given immediately after 
that of march, that the trooper on the left of the front 
rank of twos or fours, who becomes guide of the col- 
umn, may take at once a point of direction. 

After breaking by twos, No. two and four being guides, 
keep their eyes to the front. After reaching the column, 
Nos. one and three dress upon them. 

After breaking by fours, Nos. four become guides of 
each rank. 

To break the platoon by the left, the movement is ex- 
ecuted, following the same principles, but by inverse 
means, at the commands: by twos from the left (or by 
fours:) 2. March; 3. Guide right. 



84 THE PLATOON. 

Direct march in column by twos or by 
fours. 

The principles of the direct march in column by file. 
are applicable to the column by twos or by fours. 

The trooper on the left of the first rank of twos 
(or fours) is guide of the column ; he keeps his 
eyes to the front, moves straight forward, and 
marches so that the troopers of his rank may be at 
1 pace from the croup of the sub-instructor's horse. 
The trooper on the left of each of the other ranks, 
who is guide of his rank, preserves the head direct, 
and keeps at the distance of 2 feet from his file- 
leader, and in the same direction ; the other troop- 
ers of each rank look occasionally towards the 
guide, in order to align themselves and regulate 
upon him their rate of march. They feel lightly 
the boot towards that side, and yield to all pres- 
sure coming from it. When the march is by fours, 
they resist all pressure coming from the opposite 
direction. 

When the platoon marches left in front, the guide is 
to the right, and in other respects the troopers conform 
to the same principles. 

Change of direction. 

The column marching by twos or by fours, right or 
left in front, the instructor commands : 

Head of column to the left (or to the right). 
At this command the assistant-instructor commands: 



THE PLATOON. 85 

1. Left — Turn. 2. Forward. 

At the first part of the first command, which is 
left, the left trooper, who is pivot, prepares to turn 
at the same gait, the trooper of the opposite side to 
increase his. The walk is accelerated, but the trot 
is avoided, if possible, until ordered. 

At the last part of the command, which is turn, 
the first rank of twos or fours turns to the left. 
The pivot turns at the same gait, describing an 
arc of a circle of five paces. The trooper on the 
opposite side turns, increasing the gait ; the other 
troopers turn the head towards the marching flank, 
to regulate their rate of march, feeling at the same 
time lightly the boot on the side of the pivot. 

At the command forward, the troopers who 
had increased the gait resume the precise pace at 
which they were before moving, and the head of 
the column marches straight forward in the new 
direction. 

Each rank executes the same movement on 
arriving upon the ground where the first has turned. 

The assistant-instructor should give the command left 
in sufficient time to command turn, when he is at three 
paces from the point indicated for the change of direction; 
he executes his movement, lengthening slightly the gait, 
without leaving the centre of the front rank, regulating 
himself upon the marching flank, so as to give the com- 
mand forward at the instant the front rank, having ex 
ecuted a quarter of a wheel, is in a direction perpendi- 
cular to the former one. 

When the changes of direction are to be executed at the 
angles of a limited ground, and the column is marching 
by fours, the assistant-instructor commands : 1. Left (or 

8 



86 THE PLATOON. 

right) — Turn ; 2. Forward, without waiting for the com- 
mand Head of column to the leH (or to the right.) 

The column, marching by twos or by fours, the in- 
structor halts it, as prescribed. 

To commence the march, the instructor commands : 

1* Column forward. 3. Guide left. 

2. March. 

The column marching by twos or by fours, the in- 
structor commands : 

1. Left (or right) oblique. 

2. March. 

At the command march, each trooper executes 
a quarter-turn to the left. 

The trooper on the left of the first rank, who is 
guide of the column, moves straight forward in the 
new direction, and parallel to the assistant-instruc- 
tor. The trooper on the left of each of the other 
ranks, who is guide of his rank, moves forward also 
in the new direction, observing the guide of the 
column so as to keep on the same line, and in a 
parallel direction with him. 

The other troopers move forward, looking occa- 
sionally to the left so as to align themselves upon 
their guide. Each one places the left knee behind 
the right knee of the man on the left, and the head 
of his horse opposite the lower part of the neck of 
the horse on his left. The troopers march thus, in 
each rank, during the oblique march. 

To return to the primitive direction, conform to what 
is prescribed, for the column by files. 



THE PLATOON. 87 

If the troopers become disunited during the oblique 
march, they should rejoin the guide of their rank, gain- 
ing more ground to the front than to the side, so as not 
to lose their alignment nor retard those who march be- 
hind them. If the guide of any rank ceases to be on 
the line of the guide of the column, he lengthens or 
shortens the pace, without changing the direction in 
order to recover his place. 

To rectify the distances, the degrees of obliquity, and 
to be assured that the guides, as well as the other troop- 
ers, are in the same direction, the instructor halts the 
column at the commands: 1. Column; 2. Halt. The 
column is put again in motion in the oblique direction 
at the commands : 1. Column forward ; 2. March. 

The platoon marching in column by 
twos or by fours, to form it to the 
front, to the left, or on right, into line. 

The platoon marching in column right in front, to 
form line to the front, the instructor commands: 

1. Front into line. 4. Eight — DRESS. 

2. March. 5. Front. 

3. Halt. 

At the command march, the two (or four) first 
files continue to march forward ; the other ranks of 
twos (or fours) oblique to the left, march in this 
direction, and make a quarter-turn to the right on 
coming opposite the place they are to occupy in 
the platoon. 

When the first files have marched 20 paces, the 
instructor commands halt. At this command, 
they halt square to the front; the other files come 



88 THE PLATOON. 

up and form successively on their left, and dress to 
the right. 

At the command front, turn the head to the 
front. 

The instructor gives the command right — Dress im- 
mediately after that of halt, and commands front when 
the last rank of twos or fours is aligned. 

The column marching left in front, the movement is 
executed following the same principles, but by inverse 
means, at the commands: 1. Front into line; 2. 
March; 3. Halt; 4. Left — Dress; 5. Front. 

The column marching right in front, to form line upon 
its left flank, the instructor commands : 

1. Left into line. 4. Right — Dress. 

2. March. 5. Front. 

3. Halt. 

At the command march, the two (or four) first 
files turn to the left and move straight forward ; 
the other ranks of twos (or fours) continue to march 
on, and at 3 paces before arriving opposite the place 
they are to occupy in the platoon, turn successively 
to the left. 

When the first files have marched 20 paces, the 
instructor commands, halt. At this command, 
the first files halt ; the others come up and form 
successively on their left, and dress to the right. 

At the command front, turn the head to the 
front. 

The instructor gives the command right — dress, im- 
mediately after that of halt, and commands front when 
the two (or four) last files are aligned. 

The column marching left in front, to form line upofa 
its right flank, the movement is executed following the 



THE PLATOON. 89 

same principles, but by inverse means, at the commands: 
1. Right into line ; 2. March; 3. Halt ; 4. Left — Dress; 
5. Front. 

The column marching right in front, to form line upon 
the prolongation, and in advance of its right flank, the 
instructor commands : » 

1. On right into line 4. Right — Dress. 

2. March. 5. Front. 

3. Halt. 

At the command march, the two (or four) first 
files turn to the right and move straight forward ; 
the other ranks of twos (or fours) continue to march 
on, and each turns successively to the right, at 3 
paces beyond the point where the preceding rank 
has turned. 

When the first files have marched 20 paces, the 
instructor commands, halt. At this command, the 
first files halt square upon the line ; the other files 
come up and form successively on their left, and 
dress to the right. 

At the command front, turn the head to the 
front. 

The instructor gives the command right — dress, im- 
mediately afer that of halt, and commands front when 
the two (or four) last files are aligned. 

The column marching left in front, to form line upon 
the prolongation and in advance of its left flank, the 
movement is executed following the same principles, 
but by inverse means, at the commands: 1. On left into 
line ; 2. March ; 3. Halt ; 4. Left — Dress ; 5. March. 

The foregoing explanations have been given for move- 
ments twos or by fours, in orJer to avoid repetition ; but 
they are executed by fours only after obtaining the ne- 
cessary precision in the exercises by twos. When these 

8* 



90 THE PLATOON. 

movements have been executed with regularity at the 
walk, they are repeated at the trot and at the gallop. 

To form the platoon to the left in one 
rank. 

The platoon being formed in two ranks, the instruc- 
tor commands : 

1. Left into single rank. 4. Halt. 

2. March. 5. Right — Dress. 

3. Front 6. Front. 

At the command march, the front rank moves 
forward 6 paces, dressing by the right ; the trooper 
on the left of the rear rank turns to the left and 
moves forward ; he is followed by all the other 
troopers of that rank, who execute successively the 
same movement. 

At the command front, the trooper on the left 
of the rear rank turns to the right, and the other 
troopers successively, when they have arrived nearly 
opposite the places they are to occupy in the rank. 

At the command halt, the trooper on the left 
halts, and successively the others, on arriving abreast 
of him. 

At the command Right — Dress, all the troopers 
of the rear rank dress to the right. 

At the 6th command, which is front, turn the 
head to the front. 

The instructor gives the 3d command, which is front, 
the moment that one-third of the rear rank in column 
have passed the front rank ; he commands right — DRESS, 
when the trooper on the right of the rear rank has fronted. 



THE PLATOON. 91 

Manual of arms. 

The platoon being in one rank, the troopers execute 
at a hah the manual of arms. 

To form the platoon to the right in two 
ranks. 

The platoon being in one rank, the instructor desig- 
nates the trooper who is to be on the left of the front 
rank, also the one to be on the right of the rear rank, 
and commands : 

1. Right into two ranks. 3. Right — Dress. 

2. March. 4. Front. 

At the command march, the front rank moves 
forward 6 paces, dressing by the right • the trooper 
on the right of the rear rank turns to the right as 
soon as the front rank has passed, and moves for- 
ward obliquing to the right; when he is nearly in 
rear of the trooper on the right of the front rank, 
he fronts by turning to the left. All the other 
troopers execute successively the same movement, 
placing themselves exactly behind their file-leaders, 
and at their proper distances. 

At the command right — dress, all the troopers 
align themselves to the right. 

At the command front, turn the head to the 
front. 

The instructor gives the command right — dress, when 
the trooper on the right of the rear rank has turned to 
the front. 



92 THE PLATOON. 

The exercise being finished, the troopers are ordered 
to dismount and file off. 

At the command prepare to dismount, the assistant 
instructor moves 12 paces to the front, and faces the 
platoon by a turn-about to the left ; at the same com- 
mand the file-closer reins back 4 paces, and dismounts 
with the platoon. 

To form twos and fours at the same 
gait. 

The platoon inarching in column by file, right in 
front, to form twos, the instructor commands : 

1. Form twos. 2. Makch. 

At the command march, the first file continues 
to march on, and halts when it has marched 10 
paces ; the second file obliques to the left, and 
comes up abreast of the first ; on arriving there, it 
halts and dresses to the right. All the other files 
continue to inarch straight forward, Nos. 2 and 4 
executing their movement in the same manner, but 
successively, and when Nos. 1 and 3, upon which 
they should form, have nearly arrived at their 
proper distances, and are about to halt. 

The platoon marching in column by twos, right in 
front, to form fours, the instructor commands: 

1. Form fours. 2. March. 

At the command march, the two first files con- 
tinue to march on, and halt when they have 
marched 10 paces; the two following files oblique 
to the left, and come up abreast of the two first; 



THE PLATOON. 93 

on arriving there, they halt and dress to the right. 
All the other files continue to march straight for- 
ward, Nos. 3 and 4 executing their movement in 
the same manner, but successively, and when Nos. 
1 and 2, upon which they should form, have nearly 
arrived at their proper distance and are about to 
halt. 

When the column is at a trot, the formation of twos 
and fours at the same gait is executed following the same 
principles. The first, or two first files, pase to the walk, 
at the command march ; the others continue to maich 
at the trot, until they have arrived abreast of those on 
which they should form; then they pass to the walk. 

When the column is at a gallop, the e movement is exe- 
cuted following the same principles. The first, or two 
first files pass to the trot at the command march ; the 
others continue to march at the gallop, until they have 
executed their formation ; then they pass to the trot. 

When twos or fours are formed at the trot or at the 
gallop, the guide is announced as soon as the first files 
have doubled. In executing the same movements at a 
walk, as the head of the column halts, the guide is not 
announced. 

The column marching left in front, these movements 
are executed following the same principles and by in- 
verse means. 

To break by twos and by file at the 
same gait. 

The platoon marching in column by fours, right in 
front, to break by twos, the instructor commands : 

1. By twos. 2. March. 3. Guide left. 

At the command by twos, all the troopers pre- 
pare to halt, except Nos. 1 and 2 of the leading files. 



94 THE PLATOON. 

At the command march, Nos. 1 and 2 of the 
leading files continue to march at the same gait; 
all the others halt. Files 3 and 4 of the leading 
rank oblique to the right the moment they are 
passed by the croup of the horses of the rear rank 
of Nos. 1 and 2, and place themselves in column 
behind them. 

Each rank of fours executes successively the 
same movement, files 1 and 2 breaking as soon as 
files 3 and 4 of the rank which precedes them have 
commenced obliquing, in order to enter the column. 

Files 1 and 2, which break to the front, regulate 
their gate, so as to preserve their distances ; and 
files 3 and 4 keep their horses straight, so as not to 
constrain the movements of files 1 and 2. 

The platoon marching in column by twos, right in 
front, to break by file, the instructor commands : 

1. By file. 2. March. 

At the command by file, all the troopers prepare 
to halt except the right file of the leading rank of 
twos. 

At the command march, the right file of the 
leading rank of twos continues to march at the same 
gait, all the others halt. The left file of this same 
rank obliques to the right the moment it is passed 
by the croup of the rear rank horse of No. 1, and 
places itself in column behind the first file. 

Each rank of twos executes successively the 
same movement, files 1 and 3 breaking as soon as 
files 2 and 4 who precede them have commenced 
obliquing in order to enter the column. 



THE PLATOON. 95 

Files 1 and 3, which break to the front, regulate 
their gait so as to have their distances. Files 2 
and 4 keep their horses straight, so as not to con- 
strain the movements of files 1 and 3. 

"When the column is at the trot, to break by twos or 
by file is executed on the same principles ; the right files 
of the leading rank continue at the trot ; all the others take 
the walk at the command march, and resume the trot in 
order to enter the column; when the column is at the 
gallop, the files which are to break take the trot at the 
command march, and afterwards resume the gallop on 
entering the column. 

The instructor observes that the files which break, halt, 
change gait, and put themselves again in motion, with 
steadiness; that they keep their horses straight, so as not 
to retard the movements of those which only march for- 
ward, and that they retake successively their distances, 
their directions and their original gait. 

The column marching left in front, the movement is 
executed, following the same principles, but by inverse 
means, at the commands : 1. By twos (or by file) from 
the left; 2. March. If the column marches by twos, the 
guide is indicated to the right, immediately after the 
command march. 

To form twos and fours, doubling the gait. 

The platoons marching in column by file, right in 
front, to form twos the instructor commands: 

1. Form twos — trot. 3 Guide left 

2. March. 

At the command form twos — trot, all the troopers 
prepare to take the trot, except the leading file. 

At the command march, all the troopers take 
the trot, except the leading file ; the second file 



96 THE PLATOON. 

obliques to the left, and comes up abreast of the 
first; on arriving there it takes the walk ; all the 
other files continue to march forward at the trot. 
Files 4 and 2 execute their movement in the same 
manner, but successively, when 3 and 1, upon whom 
they are to form, have nearly arrived at their dis- 
tance, and are about to pass to the walk. 

The platoon marching in column by twos, right in 
front, to form fours the instructor commands: 

1. Form/ours — trot. 3. Guide left. 

2. March. 

At the commandyorm_/bwrs — trot, all the troop- 
ers prepare to take the trot, except the two leading 
files. 

At the command march, all the troopers take 
the trot, except the two leading files ; the two fol- 
lowing files oblique to the left, and come up abreast 
of the two first; on arriving there they resume the 
walk ; all the other files continue to march forward 
at the trot. Files 3 and 4 execute their movement 
in the same manner, but successively, when files 1 and 
2, upon whom they are to form, have nearly arrived 
at their distance, and are about to pass to the ivalk. 

When the column is at the trot, the movement is exe- 
cuted on the same principles. At the command march, 
all the troopers pass to the gallop, except the files at the 
head of the column, and resume the trot when their for- 
mation is executed. 

When the column is at the gallop, the movement to 
form twos or fours is always executed at the same gait. 

The column marching left in front, the movement is 
executed, following the same principles, but by inverse 
means, at the commands ; 1. Form twos (or form fours) — 
trot ; 2. March ; 3. Guide right. 



THE TROOPER. 97 

The instructor observes that the first file to oblique 
does so immediately after the command march; that the 
gait is doubled with moderation: that the formation ex- 
tends itself successively from the head to the rearof the 
column, the files who march straight forward keeping 
their horses well in hand to prevent their following those 
which oblique; he observes also that the files which 
oblique do so a little before arriving at their distance 
particularly in marching by fours ; and that they never 
pass beyond the alignment of those on whom they are to 
form. 

To break bj twos and by file doubling 
the gait. 

The platoon marching in column by fours, the instruc- 
tor commands : 

1. By twos — trot. 3. Guide left. 

2. March. 

At the command by twos — trot, files 1 and 2 of 
the leading rank of fours prepare to trot. 

At the command march, they commence the 
trot ; all the other files continue to march at the 
walk ; files 3 and 4 take the trot successively and 
ohlique to the right, in order to place themselves in 
column behind files 1 and 2. 

The movement being terminated, the instructor orders, 
the walk. 

The platoon marching in column by twos, right in 
front, to brei(k by file the instructor commands : 

1. By file— trot. 2. March. 

At the command by file — trot, the right file of 
the leading rank of twos prepares to trot. 
9 



98 THE PLATOON. 

At the command MARCH, it commences the trot ; 
all the other files continue to march at tfie walk ; 
files 2 and 4 assume the trot successively and 
oblique to the right, in order to place themselves 
behind files land 3 in the column. 

When the column is at the trot, to break doubling the 
gait, the instructor commands : 1. By twos (or by file) — 
gallop ; 2 March ; which is executed on the same prin- 
ciples. 

When the column is at the gallop, the movement 
to break by twos or by rile is executed at the same gait. 

In these movements, the instructor observes that the 
head of the column changes "ait with moderation, and 
that the troopers who follow do not permit their houses 
to move off before the moment prescribed. 

The column marching left in front, the movement is 
executed, following the :-anie principles, but by inverse 
means, at the commands : 1. By twos (or by file) from the 
left — trot ; 2. March. If the column is to march by twos, 
the guide is indicated to the right, immediately after tha 
command march. 

As it is important for the precision and regularity of 
these movements that the troopers should not forget their 
numbers, the instructor should assure himself of it from 
time to time. 

Direct march of the platoon in line. 

The principles of the direct march give the troopers 
the means, 

1st. Of preserving the alignments in marching, without 
being disunited. 

2d. Of not closing too much, and of recovering the re- 
quired distances when they have closed. 

3d. Of not opening, and of closing upon each other 
again when they have opened. 



THE PLATOON. 99 

4th. Of not throwing the guide out of his direction, 
and of permitting him to return to it if he has been 
forced out. 

The most important point in the direct march 
being to keep the horses straight in the ranks, it is 
indispensable that the troopers should preserve the 
head direct. 

To keep themselves aligned, the troopers should 
feel lightly the boot of the men on the side of the 
guide, and march at an equal gait. 

The troopers should yield to all pressure coming 
feom the side of the guide, and resist that coming 
from the op-posite side. 

The guide should always march at a free and 
steady gait, and change it with steadiness in order 
to avoid irregularity in the ranks. 

If the troopers are in front or in rear of the align- 
ment, too near to or too far from the man on the 
side of the guide, they move from or approach him 
gradually* and in gaining ground to the front. 

When the guide feels himself thrown out of his 
direction, he extends his arm to the front to in- 
dicate that there is too much pressure towards him, 
the troopers give a glance to the guide, relieve 
him and straighten their horses as soon as he is 
relieved. 

The corporal of the flank opposite to the guide, is not 
required to preserve the head direct. He aligns himself 
upon the guide and the general front of the platoon. 

The guide is commanded alternately to the right and 
to the left, that the troopers may have the habit of dress- 
ing equally towards either direction. 

When the platoon is halted, the alignment is ordered 
towards the side of the guide. 



100 THE PLATOON. 

When the instructor wishes to exercise the platoon at 
the direct march, it is conducted to the extremity of a 
ground of sufficient extent to admit of its marching -some 
time without changing the direction. 

The platoon being in line, the instructor commands : 

1. Open files to the left (or to the right.) 

2. March. 

3. Right (or left) — Dress. 

4. Front. 

At the command march, all the troopers, except, 
the right file, passage to the left, as prescribed, the 
second trooper straightens his horse andhaltsas soon 
as he has gained an interval of 1 pace between him- 
self and the trooper of the right. 

Each of the other troopers executes the same 
movement, regulating the interval by the trooper 
on his. light. 

The troopers of the rear rank follow their file- 
leaders, and keep at their proper distance's. 

The instructor or,ders the alignment the moment the 
second trooper from the right has attained his interval. 

The troopers being aligned, the instructor indicates to 
the guide of the right, or of the left, a fixed point in a 
direction perpendicular to the front of the platoon; he 
instructs him to take an intermediate point, never to 
lose sight of these two points, in order to keep himself 
always in the proper direction, and to select a more 
distant point as he approaches the one nearest to him. 

To give a point of direction, the instructor places him- 
self exactly behind the right file, or the left file, and in- 
dicates to the trooper of the front rank an object on the 
ground which is immovable and can be distinctly seen, 
such as a house, a steeple, a mill, a tree ; the trooper of 
the rear rank keeps himself always in file and at his 



THE PLATOON. 101 

proper distance, so that the front rank man will conceal 
from him the point of direction indicated. 

To march the platoon forward, the instructor com- 
mands : 

1. Platoon forward, 

2. Guide right (or left.) 

3. March. 

At the command MARCH, all the troopers move 
straight forward, at the same gait with the men on 
the side of the guide. 

As the troopers are not boot to boot, they should 
give a glance from time to time towards the guide. 

During the march the instructor is sometimes at the 
side of the guide, to assure himself that the troopers 
march on the same line ; and sometimes behind the 
guide, to observe that he follows the direction indicated. 

To halt the platoon, the instructor commands : 

1. Platoon. 3. Right (or Left) — Dress. 

2. Halt. 4. Front. 

At the command Halt, the troopers stop. 

At the command right — dress, they align them- 
selves. 

At the command front, turn the head to the 
front. 

The troopers having been sufficiently exercised in 
marching with cpen files, the instructorhalts the platoon, 
and commands : 

1. Close files to the right (or to the left.) 

2. March. 

3. Right (or left] — Dress. 

4. Front. 

9* 



102 THE PLATOON. 

At the command march, all the troopers except 
the right file passage to the right, as prescribed, and 
resume their places boot to boot. 

After having dressed the platoon, it is marched with 
files closed. 

The troopers march straight forward, feeling 
lightly the boot towards the side of the guide. 

When the troopers begin to manage their horses pro- 
perly at the walk, they are required to open and close 
files, marching at the same gait, taking care not to repeat 
these movements too often, but to make them march some 
time after having opened the files, before closing them, 
and after having closed the files, before opening them ; 
for this purpose the instructor commands: 

1. Open files to the left (or to the right.) 

2. March. 

At the command March, all the troopers except 
the right file make a quarter-turn to the left, at 
the same time advancing and preserving their 
alignment; when they are at one pace from the 
man on the right, they straighten their horses and 
move forward. 

To close files,, the' instructor commands : 

1. Close files to the right (or to the left.') 

2. March. 

This movement is executed following the same 
principles, but by inverse means. Each trooper 
should close the leg in sufficient time to prevent 
his horse from pressing against the one on which 
he closes. 



THE PLATOON. 103 

The files are always opened towards the side opposite 
to the guide, and closed upon him. 

These movements having been executed to the right 
and to the left in marching at the walk, they are repeated 
at the trot, passing frequently from the walk to the trot 
and from the trot to the walk. 

The platoon is then exercised in commencing the trot 
from a halt, and in halting while marching at this gait. 

Counter-march. 

The platoon having arrived at the extremity of the 
ground, in order to change the direction the instructor 
commands : 

1. Counter-march — by the right flank. 

2. By file to the right. 

3. March. 

At the command counter-march — by the right 
flank, the assistant instructor places himself facing 
to the rear at 6 paces from the rear rank, and in 
such a position that the trooper who is to be placed 
on his left may find himself in the direction of the 
left file of the platoon. The file-closer places him- 
self on the right of the platoon, facing to the right, 
the croup of his horse 1 pace from and on the line 
of haunches of the horses of the rear-rank, in order 
to mark the wheeling point. 

At the command march, the trooper on the right 
of each rank turns to the right, the. rear-rank man 
joining in his movement the front-rank man ; they 
then wheel together to the right, the latter length- 
ening a little his gait; they pass before the file- 



104 THE PLATOON. 

closer, very near the croup of the horses of the 
rear-rank, and arc followed by the other troopers, 
who execute successively the same movement, taking 
care to pass over the same ground. 

When the first file is within two paces of the assistant- 
instructor, who indicates the point on which itis to form, 
■the instructor commands: 

1. Front. 3. Right — Dress. 

2. Halt. 4. Front. 

At itJfoe commands front and halt, the first file 
turns to the left and halts, the trooper of the rear- 
rank taking care to slacken the pace and place 
himself exactly behind his file-leader. All the 
other files execute successively the same movement. 

At the last command, which is front, turn the 
head to the front. 

The instructor gives the command right — dress imme- 
diately after that of halt, and commands FRONT when the 
last file is aligned. 

The assistant-instructor and file-closer return to their 
places. 

The counter-march is executed by the left, on the 
same principles, at the commands: 1. Counter-march — 
by l he left flank : 2 By file to the left: 3. March. And 
afterwards : 1, Front : 2. Halt: 3. Left — Dress : 4. Front. 

The instructor observes that the troopers execute with 
steadiness their turns to the right or to the left, and that 
they place themselves on a line parallel to the one origin- 
ally occupied by the platoon. 

The counter-march should be generally executed atthe 
trot. For this purpose, after the second command, the 
instructor indicates the gait. 



THE PLATOON. 105 



Wheelings. 



There are two kinds of wheels : the wheel on a fixed 
pivot and the wheel on a moveable pivot. 

The wheel is always on a fixed pivot, except when the 
command is right (or left) — turn. 

The troopers should execute this movement without 
disuniting, and without ceasing to observe the alignment. 

In every kind of wheel, the conductor of the marching 
flank should measure with his eye the arc of the circle 
he is to pass over, so that it may not be necessary for the 
files either to open or close. He turns his head occa- 
sionally towards the pivot; if he perceives that the 
troopers are too much crowded, or too open, he increases 
or diminishes gradually the extent of his circle, gaining 
more ground to the front than to the side. 

Each trooper of the front rank should describe his cir- 
cle in the ratio of the distance at which he may be from 
the pivot. As these different arcs are all passed over in 
the same time, it is necessary that each trooper should 
slacken his pace in proportion to the distance from the 
marching flank. 

During the wheel, the troopers should turn the head 
slightly towards the marching flank, to regulate the ra> 
pidity of their march and to keep themselves aligned ; 
they should also feel lightly the boot on the side of the 
pivot, in order to remain closed to that side. They should 
nevertheless yield to pressure coming from the pivot, and 
resist that from the opposite direction. The horses are 
slightly turned towards the pivot, in order to keep them, 
upon the circular line they have to pass over. 

When the troopers have opened, they should approach 
the pivot insensibly, diminishing their circle by degrees, 
gaining more ground to the front than to the side. In 
this case, they give alternately a glance to the pivot and 
to the marching flank, taking care not to force the pivot. 

When the troopers have closed too much, they should 
endeavor to correct the fault gradually, increasing their 



106 THE PLATOON 

circle by degrees, and gaining more ground to the front 
than to the side. For this purpose, they give alternately 
a glance to the marching flank and to the pivot, taking 
care to feel lightly the boot towards the side of pivot. 

In every kind of wheel the troopers should cease 
wheeling, and retake the direct inarch at the command 
forward, at whatever point of the wheel they may be; 
it is necessary to observe, also, that the flanks which be- 
come pivots, or marching flanks, do not slacken or aug- 
ment the pace before the command of execution. 

To wheel on afixecl pivot. 

The object of the wheel on a fixed pivot is, when the 
platoon forms a part of the squadron, to pass from the 
order of battle to the order of column, and from the order 
of column to the order of battle. 

The trooper who forms the pivot of the wheel turns 
upon his own ground, without advancing or reining-back 
and without passing to the right or to the left, so that 
the centre of gravity of his horse remains always on the 
same point. Thus, in wheeling to the right, the shoulders 
of the pivot horse describe an arc of circle in passing 
from left to right, while the haunches describe another 
in passing from right to left. 

The trooper at the pivot should turn his head slightly 
towards the marching flank, that he may continue aligned 
on the conductor of that flank. 

When the platoon is marching, the pivot halts, and the 
marching flank executes its movement at the same gait 
as before the wheel. 

If the instructor indicates a new gait, in order to 
wheel, the marching flank wheels at this gait ; all the 
other troopers, who regulate the rapidity of their march 
in accordance with their distance from the marching 
flank, take freely the new gait at the command forward. 

When the platoon is halted after a wheel on a fixed 



THE PLATOOjf. 107 

pivot, the alignment is always ordered toward the side 
of the marching flank; but as the pivot should never 
move from its place, the marching flank should come up 
abreast of it. 

When the platoon is marched forward after a wheel 
on a fixed pivot, the guide is ordered on the side of the 
marching flank, immediately after the command for- 
ward, unless the movement of the platoon in the squad- 
ron requires the contrary. 

The wheelings are executed at first in single rank ; for 
this purpose, the front rank is marched forward, and 
halted when arrived at a distance from the rear rank 
equal to double its front ; the file-closer remains at his 
place ; the assistant instructor places himself behind the 
front rank; each of thein observes the rank behind 
which he is placed. 

The ranks being aligned, the instructor commands : 

1. Platoon in circle right (or left) wheel. 

2. March. 

At the command march, the troopers put them- 
selves in motion, turning the head towards the 
marching flank. The non-commissioned officer who 
conducts this flank marches at a walk, measuring 
with the eye the extent of the circle he is to pass 
over, that neither opening nor closing may be 
caused in the rank, and that the troopers may 
keep aligned. The pivot man turns upon his own 
ground, regulating himself upon the marching 
flank. 

The instructor directs the troopers to avoid as far as 
practicable, all pressure in the ranks, which would cause 
confusion on extended fronts and at rapid gates. 

When the platoon has executed several wheels, to halt 
it, the instructor commands :: 



108 TIJE PLATOON. 

1. tPIatoon. 3. Left (or right) — Dress. 

2. Halt. 4. Front. 

At the command halt, the troopers straighten 
their horses and halt with steadiness. 

At the command left (or right) — DRESS, they 
align themselves towards the side indicated. 

At the command front, turn the head to the 
front. 

The two ranks are then marched forward, preserving 
between them the same distance, and made to recom- 
mence the wheel. When the instructor wishes the pla- 
toon to take the direct march, he commands 

1. Forward. 

2. Guide left (or right.') 

At the first command, which is FORWARD, the 
pivot resumes the gait at which it was previously 
marching. 

All the other troopers straighten their horses, 
and the two flanks move forward at the same gait, 
conforming to the principles of the direct march. 

At the command guide left (or right,) the 
troopers regulate their movement towards the side 
indicated. 

When the troopers have executed several wheels to 
the right and to the left, interrupted occasionally by direct 
marches, and when the horses become calm, th» instruc- 
tor causes them to pass to the trot ; after several wheels 
at the trot, they resume the walk. 

If the platoon is wheeling to the right, and the in- 
structor wishes it to change the wheel to the left without 
halting he commands : 

1. Platoon in circle left wheel. 2. March. 



THE PLATOON. 109 

At the command march, the left flank halts, 



and becomes the pivot. The right flank assuming 
the gait at which the left flank was marching, 
moves forward and describes a circle proportionate 
to the extent of the front. All the other troopers 
straighten their horses, and guide them so as to 
pass over hew circles in the opposite direction. 

When the troopers begin to wheel regularly, the in- 
structor requires the conductors of the marching flanks 
to regulate the gait so as to arrive together in line and 
in column. 

The troopers being sufficiently exercised at the wheels 
in single rank at the walk and the trot, the ranks are 
closed and the wheels executed by platoon, following 
the same gradation. 

The instructor commands: 

1. Platoon in circle right (or left) wheel. 

2. March. 

At the command march, the troopers of the 
front rank execute this movement, as prescribed. 
The troopers of the rear rank turn the head and 
carry the hand towards the marching flank, so that 
each one may be out of the direction of his file 
leader by two troopers. For this purpose, the mo- 
ment the wheel commences, each rear rank man 
executes a quarter-turn to the left, sustaining the 
haunches of his horse with the right leg, when the 
wheel is to the right, (or a quarter-turn to the right, 
sustaining the haunches of his horse with the left 
leg when the wheel is to the left,) keeping during 
the wheel in the direction of his new file-leader, and 
remaining at the distance ot 2 feet from the front 
rank. The two rear rank men on the marching 
10 



110 THE PLATOON. 

flank, who are without file-leaders, should describe 
their circle without being farther outside of the 
front rank than is necessary, and be able to resume 
their places behind their file-leaders easily. During 
the wheel, they should regulate their gait so that 
the rear rank, which aligns itself upon them, u:ay 
be at its proper distance. 

To stop the wheel, the instructor commands: 

1. Platoon. 3. Left (or right) — DRESS. 

2. Halt. 4. Front. 

At the command platoon, the rear rank men 
straighten their horses and return to the direction 
of their file-leaders. 

At the command halt, all the troopers stop. 

At the command left (or right) — Dress, they 
align themselves towards the side indicated. 

At the command front, turn the head to the 
front. 

The platoon is then marched to the front, and made to 
repeat the same movement. 

When the instructor wishes the platoon to resume the 
direct inarch, he commands : 

1. Forward. 2. Guide left (or right. 

At the first command, which is forward, the 
rear rank men replace themselves behind their file- 
leaders, and march straight forward. 

The platoon wheeling to the right, to wheel to the 
opposite side without halting, the instructor commands : 

1. Platoon in circle left wheel. 2. March. 



THE PLATOON. Ill 

At the command platoon in circle left wheel, the 
rear rank men return to the direction of their file- 
leaders. 

At the command march, the front rank men 
conform to what is prescribed, the rear rank men 
earry the hand towards the marching flank. 



The instructor gives the command march, the moment 
the rear rank men have taken up the direction of their 
file-leaders. 

To give the troopers the habit of correcting faults, the 
pivot man is directed to bear against the rank, so that 
the other troopers feeling the pressure from that, direction, 
may learn to gain ground towards the marching flank. 
The pivot is then directed to gain ground in the opposite 
direction, which would require the other troopers to ap- 
proach him gradually. 

When the troopers have acquired in the execution 
of these movements, at the walk, the intelligence and 
skill necessary to avoid confusion, they are repeated at 
the trot. 

The platoon being halted, to place it in a direction 
perpendicular to the original front the instructor com- 
mands : 

1. Platoon right (or left) wheel. 

2. March. 

3. Halt. 

4. Left (or right) — Dress. 

5. Front. 

Which is executed on the same principles of the 
wheel on a fixed pivot. 

The instructor gives the command halt, when the 
marching flank has nearly terminated its wheel. 



112 THE PLATOON. 

The platoon being halted, to face it to the rear, the 
instructor eommands : "" 

1. Platoon right-about (or left-ahout) ivheel. 

2. March. 
o. Halt. 

4. Left (or right) — Dress. 

5. Front. 

Which is executed following the principles just 
prescribed, the platoon passing over a half circle. 

The instructor gives the command halt, when the 
marching flank has nearly completed the half circle, and 
the platoon is on a line parallel to the original front. 

The platoon being halted, to place it towards its right 
in a direction oblique to the original front, the instructor 
commands : 

1. Platoon right half (or left half) wheel. 

2. March. 

3. Halt. 

4. Left (or right) — Dress. 

5. Front. 

Which is executed on the principles of the wheel 
on a fixed pivot. 

The instructor gives the command halt, when the 
marching flank has nearly completed its half-wheel to 
the right or to the left. 

Before dressing the platoon, the trooper on the march- 
ing flank is made to come up abreast of the pivot man, 
so that the other troopers will not have to rein-back in 
order to align themselves. 

The platoon being on the march, the same movements 



THE PLATOON. 113 

are executed at the commands : 1. Platoon right (or left) 
wheel, right-aboat (or left-about) wheel right-half (or left- 
half) wheel; 2. March; 3. Forward; 4. Guide right (or 
left.) 

At the command march, the wheeling flank 
wheels at the gait at which the platoon was march- 
ing ; the pivot flank halts. 

At the third command, which is forward, the 
pivot resumes its original pace, and the two flank? 
move forward at the same gait. 

These movements being properly executed from a halt 
and at the walk, are repeated at the trot. 

To wheel on a moveable pivot. 

The wheel on a moveable pivot is employed in the 
successive changes of direction in column. 

In this wheel the object of the moveable pivot is to 
leave by degrees the ground on which the movement 
commences, by advancing in the new direction. 

The conductor of the marching flank should increase 
his gaitand describe his arc, of circle so as to cause the 
files neither to open nor close. The pivot describes an 
arc of five paces, slackening the gait. In eaeh rank the 
troopers from the centre to the marching flank increase 
the gait progressively, so that the centre man preserves 
the gait at which the platoon was marching. The troop- 
ers fi»m the centre to the pivot slacken the gait progres- 
sively. At the end of the wheel on a moveable pivot, 
the portion of the rank which had augmented its gait 
should slacken it, and that which had slackened its gait 
should augment it. All the troopers straighten their 
horses; the marching flank and the pivot resume the 
gait at which they originally marched. 

The platoon being on the march, and supposed to be 
10* 



114 THE PLATOON. 

the head of the column, to cause it to change direction, 
the instructor commands : 

Head of column to the left (or to the right.) 

At this commaud, the assistant instructor commands : 

1. Left (or right) — TURN. 2. FORWARD. 

At the first part of the first command, which is 
left (or right,) the pivot prepares to slacken, and 
the maching flank to augment the gait. 

At the second part of the same command, which 
is turn, the platoon turns to the left or to the 
right, the pivot slackening its gait, in describing an 
arc of five paces ; the marching flank augments its 
gait, and regulates itself by the pivot during the 
whole of the wheel. 

At the last command, which is forward, all the 
troopers straighten their horses, the pivot and 
marching flank moving forward in the gait at which 
the platoon was originally marching. 

The troopers not having been exercised to wheel at 
the gallop on a fixed pivot, they are made to wheel on a 
moveable pivot only in marching at the ivalk, that the 
marching flank, which should increase its gait will have 
to take only the trot. 

To exercise the troopers in wheeling at the gallop on a 
fixed pivot, the progression established for the exercise 
at the walk and at the trot is followed, except that inten- 
tional faults are not committed in order to be corrected, 
and that the platoon is always halted before changing 
the direction of the ■wheel. 

The instructor changes the gait frequently, and avoids 
galloping too long to the same hand. 



THE PLATOON. 115 

The platoon is exercised also to wheel at the trot and 
at the gallop, in setting out from a halt, and to halt while 
wheeling at these gaits. 

Individual oblique march. 

The platoon marching in line, to cause it to gain 
ground, towards one of its flanks, without changing the 
front, the instructor commands: 

1. Eight (or left) oblique. 2. March. 

At the command MARCH, the troopers execute 
all at the same time a quarter-turn to the right, so 
that the head of each horse may be opposite the 
lower part of the neck of the horse on his right, 
and that the right knee of each trooper may be in 
rear of the left knee of the trooper on his right. 
The first movement being executed, the troopers 
move forward in the new direction, regulating 
themselves upon the guide. 

When the platoon has obliqued sufficiently, the in- 
structor commands : 

Forward. 

At this command, the troopers straighten their 
horses and move forward, regulating themselves 
upon the guide.. 

In the oblique march, the guide is always on the ob- 
liquing side, withoutbeing indicated ; and after the com- 
mand FORWARD, the guide returns, without indication, 
to the side on which it was originally. 

When the troopers are not closed they should increase 
progressively the gait, in order to approach the side 



116 THE 1LAT00N. 

towards which they march ; they should insensibly 
slacken the gait if they are too much closed, or more 
advanced than the flank towards which they oblique. 
All these movements are executed, gaining more ground 
to the front than to the side. 

The platoon marching at the walk, to execute the ob- 
lique at the trot, the instructor commands : 1. Right (or 
left) oblique — trot; 2. March. 

When the platoon has obliqued sufficiently, the in- 
structor commands : Forward. 

The guide observes particularly to commence the trot 
without precipitation. 

The same course is observed if the platoon is marching 
at the trot, and the object is to oblique at the gallop. 

The platoon marching in line, to break 
it by fours or by twos, at the same 
gait. 

The instructor commands : 

1. By fours, (or by twos). 

2. March. 

3. Guide left. 

At the command march, the four (or two) first 
files of the right continue to march forward at the 
same gait ; the other files halt and break succes- 
sively, by fours (or by twos) as - prescribed, in 
breaking; from a halt. 



The platoon marching in line, to break it by file the 
movement is executed on the same principles, the first 
file only continuing to march forward. 

The platoon marching at the trot, is broken on the same 



THE PLATOON. 117 

principles, the first files continuing to march atthesame 
fiait, all the other files assume the walk at the command 
march, and resume the trot as they break from the pla- 
toon. 

The same course is observed when the platoon marches 
at the gallop; the first files continue to march at that 
gait, the others resume the trot at the command march, 
and resume the gallop as they commence to oblique. 

To break the platoon by the left, the movement is ex- 
ecuted following the same principles, but by inverse- 
means, at the commands : 1. By fours (or by twos) from the 
left ; 2. March ; 3. Guide right. 

The platoon marching in column by 
twos or by fours, to form it at the 
same gait. 

The platoon marching in column, right in front, the 
instructor commands : 

1. Form platoon. 2. March. 3. Guide right. 

The movement is executed as prescribed for front 
into line. 

The platoon marching in column at the trot, right in 
front, the instructor commands : 

1. Form platoon. 2. March. 3. Guide right. 

At the command march, the twa (or four)"" first 
files pass to the walk ; the other files continue to 
march at the same gait, oblique immediately to the 
left, march straight forward in this direction, make 
a quarter-turn to the right on coming opposite the 



118 THE PLATOON. 

place they are to occupy in the platoon, and pass 
to the walk on arriving upon the alignment of the 
first, 

At the command Guide right they dress towards 
the right. 

When the command is at the gallop, the platoon is 
formed on the same principles. The two (or four) first 
files take the trot, at the command march ; the other 
files continue to march at the gallop, and takefAe trot on 
arriving upon the alignment of the first. 

When the column is marching by file, the platoon is 
formed on the same principles. 

The column marching left in front, the platoon is 
formed on the same principles, but by inverse means, 
at the command : 1. Form platoon ; 2. 'March; 3. Guide 
left. 

The platoon marching in line, to break 
it by fours or by twos, doubling the 
gait. 

The instructor commands: 

1. By fours (or by twos) — trot. 

2. March. 

3. Guide left. 

At the command march, the four (or two) first 
files of the right take the trot ; the others continue 
to march at the walk, and take successively the trot 
when they oblique to the right, in order to enter 
the column. 



THE PLATOON. 119 

The ylatoon marching at the trot, the^nstructor com- 
mands : 

1. By fours (or by ticos) — gallop. 

2. March. 

3. Guide left. 

Which is executed as prescribed. 

The platoon marching in line, to break it by file, the 
movement is executed on the same principles. 

When the platoon marches at the gallop, it is always 
broken without doubling the gait. 

To break the platoon by the left, the movement is ex- 
ecuted on the same principles, but by inverse means, at 
the commands : 1. By fours (or by twos) from the left — 
trot (or gallop) ; 2. March ; 3. Guide right. 

The platoon marching in column by 
twos or by fours, to form it r doubling 
the gait. 

The platoon inarching in column, right in front, the 
instructor commands : 

1. Form platoon — trot. 

2. Makch. 

3. Guide right. 

At the command makch, the two (or four) first 
files continue to march forward at the same gait; 
the other files take the trot, oblique immediately to 
the left, march in this direction, make a quarter- 
turn to the right on coming opposite the place they 
are to occupy in the platoon, and pass to the walk 
on arriving upon the alignment of the first. 



120 THE PLATOON. 

At the command guide right, they dress towards 
the right. "'* 

The platoon marching in column, at the trot, right in 
front, the instructor commands : 

1. Form platoon — gallop. 

2. March. 

3. Guide right. 

Which is executed as just prescribed. 

When the column is at the gallop, the platoon is always 
formed at the same gait. 

When the column is marching by file, the platoon is 
formed on the same principles. 

The column marching left in front, the platoon is 
formed on the same principles, but by inverse means, 
at the commands : I. Form platoon — trot (or gallop) ; 2. 
March ; 3. Guide left. 

Movements by fours, the platoon being 
in column or in line. 

The platoon being in column, right in front, the in- 
stiuctor commands : 

1. By fours — left (or right) wheel. 

2. March. 

At the command march, each rank of four exe- 
cutes its wheel to the left, according to the princi- 
ples of the wheel on a fixed pivot; Nos. 4 turn 
upon themselves, sustaining with the left leg the 
haunches of their horses, in order not to constrain 
the movement of the rank immediately behind 
them ; all the troopers regulate themselves towards 
the marching flanks. 



THE PLATOON. 121 

The movement being nearly completed the instructor 
commands : 

1. Halt. 

2. Right (or left) — Dress. 

3. Front. 

At the command halt, the troopers straighten 
their horses and halt with steadiness. 

In this movement, the front and rear-rank execute, 
separately, a wheel on a fixed pivot. Each rank of fours 
belonging to the rear-rank is placed at the side of the 
rank of fours, composed of its file leaderjs. When the 
movement is terminated, the platoon is in one rank. 

The platoon being in one rank, it is put again in col- 
umn by the commands prescribed, then the troopers of the 
rear-rank are placed in front of their file-leaders. In 
executing again two wheels to the left by fours, the platoon 
is put in its natural order. 

In the first wheel to the left by fours, the leading rank of 
fours should execute its movement slowly, in order to 
give the others time to execute theirs; but in the sec- 
ond wheel to the left by fours, the last rank of fours, which 
becomes head of the column, should execute its move- 
ment in lengthening a little the gait, so as not to retard 
the rear of the column. 

The platoon being in column, and having executed a 
wheel to the left, by fours, which puts it in a single rank, 
to face it in the opposite direction, the instructor com- 
mands : 

1. By fours left-about (or right-about) wheel. 

2. March. 

At the command march, each rank of fours 
wheels to the left-about on the principles prescribed 
ior the wheel to the left by fours. 
11 



122 THE PLATOON. 

To halt after being wheeled about, the instructor com- 
mands : 

1. Halt. 

2. Right (or left) — Dress. 

3. Front. 

To put the platoon again in column in the natural 
order, the instructor causes to be executed a wheel to the 
left by fours. 

When the column is marching, the movement is 
executed as prescribed, observing that, at the com- 
mand march, the pivots halt immediately and turn 
upon themselves, supporting with the left leg the 
haunches of their horses. 

The movement being nearly terminated, the instructor 
commands : 

1. Forward. 

2. Guide right (or left). 

At the first command, which is forward, the 
pivots and all the other troopers, conforming to the 
principles of the direct march, regulate themselves 
towards the guide. 

The platoon marching in column, and having made 
one wheel to the left by fours, which puts it in single rank, 
the instructor causes to be executed a wheel to the left- 
about (or to the right-about) by fours ; the movement 
being nearly terminated, he commands: 

1. Forward. 

2. Guide righf(ov left). 

To put the platoon again in column in the natural order, 
the instructor causes to be executed a wheel to theleft (or 
to the right) by fours, and indicates the guide to the left. 



THE PLATOON. 123 

The platoon marching in column by lours, right in 
front, to cause it to march to the rear, the instructor 
commands : 

1. By fours le/t-about (or right-about) wheel. 

2. March. 

3. Forward. 

4. Guide right (or left). 

Which is executed on the principles prescribed, 
observing that the ranks of fours should finish the 
movement at the same time ; that they should com- 
mence the last half of the wheel gently, regulating 
themselves upon the last rank of fours, which be- 
coming the head of the column, lengthens the gait 
so as not to retard the others. After this move- 
ment, the troopers of the rear-rank are placed in 
front of their file-leaders. 

To put the column again in the natural order, the in- 
structor causes to he executed a wheel to the right-about 
(or to the left-about) by fours. 

The platoon being in line, to cause it to gain ground 
towards its right or towards its left, the instructor com- 
mands : 

1. By fours right (or left) wheel. 

2. March. 

3. Forward. 

4. Guide left (or rigid). 

The platoon having wheeled to the right by fours, 
the troopers are formed upon a front of eight. 
Each rank of fours having executed the movement 
separately, the four troopers of the rear rank find 
themselves on the right of the four troopers of the 



124 THE PLATOON. 

front rank.* It is the reverse if the movement is 
executed by the left. 

The platoon having vjheeled to the right (or to the left) 
by fours, and being upon a front of eight, to change the 
direction, the instructor commands : 

Head of column to the left (or to the right). 

At this command the assistant-instructor commands: 

1. Left (or right) — Turn. 2 Forward. 

Which is executed as prescribed, each rank of 
eight wheeling upon the same ground with the first 
as they reach it. 

To put the platoon again in line, the instructor com- 
mands : 

1. By fours left (or right) wheel. 

2. March. 

3. Halt. 

4. Eight (or left) — Dress. 

5. Front. 

*Whenit is necessary to break a platoon by fours, 
and there is not sufficient space in front, the instructor 
commands : 

1. By fours right (or left) wheel. 4. March. 

2. March. 5. Guide left (or right.) 

3. By fours. 

At the second command, the platoon wheels to the 
right by fours. At the fourth command, the first set of 
fours on the right of the front rank moves forward; 
when the croups of their horses are opposite the men of 
the set of fours of the rear rank on their right, this set 
turn their horses' heads to the lei't, and by an oblique 
march cover their front rank men ; and so on succes- 
sively. The sets of fours of the front rank, take care 
not to leave more space between them, and the set of 
fours of the front rank, which precedes them, than is 
sufficient to admit the set of fours from the rear rank. 

This movement to the left is executed by inverse means. 



THE PLATOON. 125 

The platoon having wheeled to the right (or to the left) 
by fours, and being formed upon a front of eight, to march 
to the rear in this order, the instructor causes to be exe- 
cuted a wheel to the right or left-about. 

The platoon being in line, to cause it to march to the 
rear, the instructor commands : 

1. By fours left-about (or right-about) wheel. 

2. March. 

3. Forward. 

4. Guide riyht (or left). 

After this movement, the rear rank is before the 
front rank, and the ranks of fours are inverted 
throughout the platoon. 

In the march to the rear, the platoon conforms to the 
principles of the direct march. The instructor requires 
the same precision as when they march in the natural 
order. 

The platoon is faced to the front by the same movement. 

Before commencing the movements by fours, the in- 
structor assures himself that the troopers know their 
numbers, and that those of the rear rank are at their pro- 
per distance. He observes that the pivots do not slacken 
the gait at the preparatory command ; that they halt and 
turn without reining back, at the command march ; that 
they gain ground to neither side, and sustain the haun- 
ches of their horses, regulating themselves upon the 
marching flanks; finally, that the men on ihe marching 
flanks turn their horses slightly towards the pivots, and 
that they commence and close the movement gently. 

In the flank movements, the assistant-instructor places 
himself on the side of the guide, abreast of the leading 
rank of eight. The file closer turns to the right (or to the 
left), and marches at his place when the platoon is in 
line. 

In the wheels to the right or left-about, the platoon 
being in line, the assistant-instructor and file-closer 
wheel about separately, and are placed, the assistant- 
11* 



126 THE PLATOON. 

instructor behind the centre of the platoon, the file- 
closer in front of the centre of the rear rank become the 
front. 

The movements by fours should be executed, to the right 
and to the left alternately, and at all the gaits, except the 
gallop. ' 

When the column is marching right in front, it wheels 
by fours to the left-about ; and when left in front, it 
wheels by fours to the right-about. 

The platoon marching in line with open ranks, and 
the files one pace apart, the troopers are made to exe- 
cute the manual of arms. 

The platoon marching in column by file, the troopers 
having the distance of 3 paces, the instructor causes the 
exercise of the sabre to be execnted. 

The exercise being terminated, the troopers are or- 
dered to dismount and file off. 

To charge by platoon. 

To charge by platoon, the instructor orders the sabre 
to be drawn. The platoon is commanded by the as- 
sistant-instructor, that the instructor may be able to 
move where ever he can best observe the faults. 

The opposite line is marked out 200 paces to the front, 
by two troopers, the distance of the front of the platoon 
apart, and facing each other. 

To commence the move, the assistant-instructor com- 
mands : 

1. Platoon foncard. 

2. Guide right (or left). 

3. March.' 

When the platoon has marched 20 paces, the assis- 
tant-instructor commands : 

1. Trot. 2. March. 



THE PLATOON. 127 

At 60 paces further, he commands : 

1. Gallop. 2. March. 

At 80 paces further, he commands : Charge. 

At this command, the troopers of both ranks 
take the position of raise — sabre. They give hand 
and lengthen the gallop, without losing control of 
their horses or disuniting. 

When the platoon arrives at 20 paces fiom the troop- 
ers who trace the new line, the assistant-instructor com- 
mands : __ 

1. Attention. 

2. Platoon. 

3. Halt. 

4. Right (or left) — Dress. 

5. Front. 

At the command attention, the troopers carry 
the sabre to the shoulder. 

At the command platoon, they take the trot. 

At the command halt, they stop. 

At the command right — Dress, they align them- 
selves to the right. 

At the command front, turn the head lo the 
front. 

The troopers should be exercised at the charge with 
the greatest care, without being required to repeat it too 
often. 

The instructor requires the gallop to be keptup; he sees 
that the troopers preserve ease in the ranks, that they 
hold a light hand, so that the horses not being constrained 
in tlieir movements may not become too restive. He 
observes that the troopers cany the upper part of the 
body a little forward, in order to aid the impulsion, re- 
maining at the same time well seated, which gives them 



128 THE PLATOON. 

a facility in conducting their liorses and using the sabre ; 
finally, that the rear rank keeps at its proper distance. It 
is better, however, that the rear rank should have too 
much than too little room. 

The instructor explains to the troopers, that it is in 
keeping their liorses in hand, in cnusing them to feel 
from time to time the effect of the bit, in moving paral- 
lel to the flank flies, and remaining always abreast of 
them, that the shock of the charge becomes the great- 
est. Finally, the instructor directs the troopers not to 
change the gait before the command, and to lengthen 
the gallop only at the command charge. 

Rallying. 

To exercise the troopers in rallying, the platoon is 
formed at the extremity of the ground, the sabres are 
drawn, and the signal to disperse is sounded ; at this sig- 
nal, the troopers disperse and charge as forages; the 
instructor and the flank files remain in place, to mark 
out the rallying point. When the troopers have marched 
150 or 200 paces, the instructor orders the rally to be 
sounded. 

At this signal, the troopers wheel to the left-about, 
rejoin the platoon by the shortest line, and resume 
their places in the ranks. 

The rallying should be executed rapidly, but 
without noise, the troopers entering the ranks always 
by the rear. 

As soon as two-thirds of the troopers have joined, the 
instructor commands the platoon to move forward. The 
first time, the platoon is rallied at the trot, and then at 
the gallop. This movement is repeated without retain- 
ing the flank files ; in this case the troopers rally behind 
the instructor. 



THE PLATOON. 129 



Skirmishing. 



The platoon being supposed to form a part ot the 
squadron, it is dispersed as skirmishers, in order to cover 
the front and the flanks of the squadron. 

The platoon being in line at the extremity of the 
ground, the instructor causes the schabraques to be raised, 
the holsters uncovered, and the arms loaded ; he inarches 
the platoon forward, and when he wishes to disperse the 
troopers as skirmishers, he commands: 

1. Six files from right — as skirmishers.* 

2. March. 

3. Guide right. 

At the first command, the file-closer places him- 
self in front of the six files of the left, of whom he 
takes command. 

These six files are destined to support the skir- 
mishers and to relieve them. 

At the command march, the file-closer com- 
mands halt, to the six files of the left, and causes 
them to draw the sabre. 

At the same command, the six files of the right 
continue to march forward ; after going ten paces, 
they disperse as skirmishers, extending themselves 
so as to cover the supposed front of a squadron, 
passing beyond each of its flanks. The right troop- 
er obliques to the right, the left trooper to the left. 
The troopers of the rear rank come up as soon as 

*Half the platoon skirmish, while the other half re" 
main as a support; if possible, let each platoon have a 
minimum of 16; then 8 files would skirmish with 8 in 
reserve. 



130 THE PLATOON. 

possible, abreast of the front rank, each one placing 
himself on the left of his file-leader, and as soon as 
they are in line, all take the position of advance — 
carbine, or raise — pistol. They continue to 
march until the signal halt, No. 2. 

The instructor causes the halt to be sounded when the 
skirmishers are at 100 or 150 paces from the reserve. 

The troopers keep at 5 paces apart, regulating 
themselves towards the guide during the whole 
time they act as skirmishers. 

The assistant-instructor places himself in rear of the 
skirmishers, in order to superintend their movements. 

The chief of the platoon, followed by his trumpeter, 
places himself half way between the skirmishers and 
the reserve ; he moves along the line wherever he thinks 
his presence most necessary. The reserve and the 
skirmishers execute their movements at the signals of 
the trumpeter who follows the officer. 

If the chief of the platoon wishes the skirmishers to 
move forward, he causes the forward, No. 1, to be 
sounded ; each skirmisher moves forward, regulating 
his movements b) those of the guide, and preserving his 
interval ; the reserve follows them, keeping at its proper 
distance. 

To move the skirmishers towards the right, to the right, 
No. 4, is sounded; each trooper turns to the right and 
marches in the direction of those who precede him, 
taking care to preserve his distance; the reserve also 
turns to the right. 

To face the skirmishers again to the front, to the left, 
No 3, is sounded ; the skirmishers and the reserve turn 
to the left. 

To move the skirmishers towards the left, to the left, 
No. 3, is sounded ; each skirmisher turns to the left and 
marches in the direction of those who precede him, 



THE PLATOON. 131 

taking care to preserve Iiis distance. The reserve also 
turns to the left. 

To face the skirmishers again to the front, to the right, 
No. 4, is sounded; the skirmishers and the reserve turn 
to the right. 

If, after having turned to the right, the instructor 
wishes the skirmishers to move towards the opposite 
side, he orders the about, No. 5, to be sounded ; the skir- 
mishers and the reserve turn to the left-about, and move 
forward. 

If, after having turned to the left, the instructor 
wishes the skirmishers to move towards the opposite 
side, he causes the about, No. 5. to be sounded ; the skir- 
mishers and the reserve turn to the right- about, and move 
forward. 

During the flank movements, if the troopers are to 
continue firing, they leave the column and face the ene- 
my for that purpose. As soon as they have fired, they 
resume their places in the column, doubling the gait. 

The skirmishers are marching to the front or at a halt ; 
if the instructor wishes the line to move to the rear, the 
chief of platoon orders the retreat to be sounded. At this 
signal, the troopers of the front rank move forward 5 
paces, fire, then turn totheleft-about, in order to move to 
the rear, and retire, loading their pieces. When they 
have marched 50 paces, or more, if necessary, the chief 
of platoon causes the about, No. 5, to be sounded. v At 
this signal, the troopers, who were retiring, face to the 
front by turning to the right-about. The troopers who are 
in the first line fire and turn to the left-about, retire, load- 
ing their pieces, pass in the intervals of the line which 
is in rear, move 50 paces farther, and face to the front 
at the signal the about, No. 5. 

The troopers of the line which is in rear, move 5 
paces to the front the moment the troopers who retire 
pass into their intervals; they then commence firing by 
the flank indicated. 

The alternate movement of the two lines continues as 
long as the skirmishers move to the rear. When the in- 
structor wishes the retreat to cease, the chief of platoon 
orders forwi-' ™?.— .-■-:. -A.w^Aiu&JB"-.- ^ ! ' s skirmishers 



132 THE PLATOON. 

who are in rear move up, doubling the gait, abreast of 
those the most advanced, and all march forward until 
the signal to halt, No. 2, is sounded. 

If the instructor wishes tlie whole line of skirmishers 
to retire at once, he orders the about, No. 5, to be sounded. 

The reserve retires and faces to the front, regulating 
its movement by that of the skirmishers, so as to remain 
always at 60 paces from the second line. It executes 
its rear movement at the moment the retreating line 
parses into the intervals of tlie line which moves for- 
ward. 

Tlie rallying of skirmishers is always made on the 
point occupied by the officer. 

To rally the skirmishers, the officer places himself 
habitually in front of the reserve, and causes the rally, 
No. 6, to be sounded. At this signal, the skirmishers 
turn-about, rally on the reserve by the shortest route, and 
draw the sabre. 

If the officer is not with the reserve when the rally, 
No. 6, is sounded, the skirmishers rally upon him, and 
the reserve comes up and joins them. The troopers 
are thus exercised to rally upon any point whatever of 
the line. 

If a defile is presented in advance of the front of the 
line, and orders are given to pass it, the troopers who 
are opposite first enter it; they are followed at some 
distance by the other troopers, who turn by trooper to 
the left and to the right, in order to put themselves in 
file. 

As soon as the first have passed the defile, they move 
50 or 60 paces tn the front; the others come up abreast 
of them obliquing, those of the right to the right, and 
those of the left to the left. Tlie reserve enters the de- 
file when the first skirmishers have reconnoitred it. 

If the skirmishers are to pass a defile placed in rear, 
they commence by approaching it; when the reserve is 
at a suitable distance it passes rapidly, and posts itself 
50 or 60 paces from and on the side of the passage. 

The two troopers who are on the flank, turn-about tothe 
left, mov *' "™- <=« ns to arrive together at the en- 



THE PLATOON. 133 

trance of the defile, which tliey pass immediately. They 
are followed closely by the other troopers, who execute 
successively the same movement; the centre troopers, 
who cover the defile, enter it the last. 

At the going out of the defile, the two troopers who 
are in front turn, one to the left, and the other to the 
right; and when all the troopers have passed the de- 
file, they stop at the signal to halt, No. 2, and face to the 
front. 

The instructor sometimes rallies the skirmishers im- 
mediately after having passed the defile, either to the 
front or to the rear. 

These movements are at first executed at the walk, then 
at the trot, and finally at the gallop. When the troopers 
have learned to perform these movements well, they are 
exercised at them, in executing the manual of arms, and 
in firing; and finally, with the overcoats rolled and car- 
ried over the shoulder. When the troopers are at the 
gallop, and the instructor wishes them to pass to the trot, 
he orders the trot, No. 7, to be sounded ; when they are 
at the trot, and he wishes them to pass to the walk, he or- 
ders the halt, No. 2, and then the forward, No. 1, to be 
sounded. 

To commence or to cease firing, the s.gnal is sounded. 
All the troopers do not fire at once, but one after an- 
other, commencing on the side of the guide. They af- 
terwards continue firing without waiting for, or being 
governed by each other. Each rear rank man has an 
understanding with his file-leader that, as far as practi- 
cable, the piece of one may be always charged while the 
other is loading; the troopers of the same file should 
give a mutual support to each other. 

When the platoon skirmishes without gaining ground 
to the front, the skirmishers should nevertheless keep in 
motion always; each trooper of the front rank, after 
having fired, moves some steps to the rear, at the same 
time loading his piece : and as soon as he returns to the 
line, the rear-rank man of the same file fires, and moves 
in his turn to the rear. 



134 THE PLATOON. 

In the charge as foragers, the men of the rear-rank 
approach within one or two paces of their file-leaders, 
to be able to support each other mutually. 

As soon as the skirmishers charge, the reserve moves 
forward to support them. 

The skirmishers retire by turning-about lo the left, and 
face again to the front by turning-about to the. right. 
When they have re-formed in platoon, they return the 
pistol to the holster, or drop the ca:bine, and draw the 
sabre. 

To relieve skirmishers, the instructor commands to 
the reserve : 

1. Six files from left — as skirmishers. 

2. March. 

3. Guide right. 

At the command march, the reserve disperses 
and moves up upon the line of old skirmishers. 
The right trooper of the front-rank passes on the 
right of the right skirmisher of the front rank; 
the right trooper of the rear rank on the right of 
the ri»ht skirmisher of the rear rank, and so on 
throughout, each one passing to the right of the 
one he relieves, and 5 paces beyond him. The old 
skirmishers turn-about and rally at a gallop on the 
officer, who during the movement is placed at the 
point wnere the six files now become the reserve 
should re-form. 

The non-commissioned officer who commanded 
the six files of the left now takes command of the 
six files of the right. 

If there are two non-commissioned officers with the 
platoon, each one follows the portion of the platoon to 
which he is attached. 



THE PLATOON. 135 

Dragoons. — The dragoons having been sufficiently 
exercised in all the movements of skirmishing, will be 
taught to dismount and form with celerity to fight on 
foot. 

At the commencement, all the movements of this in- 
struction will be decomposed, in order to make them 
better understood. 

The platoon being in line, the instructor commands : 

Prepare to fight — On foot. 
1 lime, 4 motions. 

1st. At the last part of the command, which is ON 
FOOT, prepare to dismount as prescribed. 

2d. Execute what is prescribed, to dismount; Nos. 4, 
of each rank, will remain mounted. 

3d. Return to the ranks as prescribed, face to the 
right, pass the reins with the right hand over the head 
of the horse, seize the extremity of the reins, with the left 
hand, seize them again with the right hand, 6 inches 
from the mouth of the horse, the nails upwards; face to 
the front, and hook up the sabre without letting go the 
reins. 

4th. Face-about to the right, seizing the reins with the 
left hand, 6 inches from the mouth of the horse, the 
nails downward, slip the right hand to the extremity of 
the rein; Nos. 3, of each rank, give the reins to Nos. 4, 
who remain mounted ; Nos. 2 and 1 engage the end of 
the reins with both hands, in the head-stall of the bri- 
dle of the horse which is on the left, passing them under 
the noseband and the cheek-piece of the bridle, and 
tying them in a si p knot, so that each horse may be 
about one foot from the one to which he is tied ; face 
again to the front by the right, unsling the carbine, and 
come to a carry. 

The instructor commands : 

Dragoons — Into line. 
1 time. 



136 THE PLATOON. 

At the !a>t part of the command, -which is into line, 
move twelve paces to the front, turning the back upon 
the platoon of hor>es; half the rear rank pass to the 
right by the right flank, the other half to the left by the 
left-flank, and placesthemselves behind their file-leaders. 

Nos. 4, who remain on horseback, have charge of the 
dismounted horses; they take the end of the reins of the 
fir:-t dismounted horse in the left hand, holding them 
near the bit with the right hand, the nails downward; 
an assistant-instructor, or file-closer of the platoon, re- 
mains with the dismounted horses to direct them. 

The dragoons having been sufficiently exercised at 
the different movements of this instruction, will be re- 
quired to execute them rapidly without stopping at the 
several motions, and at the single command, prepare to 
fight on foot, given by the instructor. 

The two ranks being formed, the platoon will be con- 
ducted where it is to fight on foot, and will there ma- 
noeuvre as light infantry.* 

The dismounted horses will also be exercised in 
changing position, by marching by rank and by fours. 

When the instructor wishes the dragoons to remount, 
he will rally them if they are dispersed as skirmishers. 

The platoon being rallied and formed, the instructor 
commands : 

Dragoons, about — Face. 

He conducts the platoon rear -rank in front; having 
come within 12 paces of the horses, he commands : 

Dragoons — M ount. 

At this command, the dragoons return to their horses 
rapidly, without alarming them; they sling, carbine, 
mount, and draw the sabre. 

The command, dragoons — mount, at the commence- 

* Dragoons are armed with good long range guns, and 
should be as expert in the light infantry as in cavalry 
tuciics ; the best book is that of Col. Hardee. 



THE PLATOON. 137 

ment, will be executed in 4 motions, and from a halt, 
that the troopers may better understand it. For this 
purpose, the platoon being rallied and marching with the 
rear-rank in front, is halted 12 paces from the horses ; 
the instructor then commands : 

Dragoon s — Mount. 

1 time, 4 motions. 

1. At the last part of the command, which is mount, 
sling the carbine. 

2. Rejoin the horses, the rear-rank men passing to the 
left and right, as prescribed in dismounting; untie the 
horse, pass the reins over the neck, unhook the sabre, 
and take the position of the trooper before mounting. 

3. Execute the two times of prepare to mount. 

4. Execute the two times of mount, adjust the reins, 
return to the ranks, and draw the sabre. 

To sling and unsling the carbine (or 
short rifle.) 

The piece being at the dragoon s right side, but on the 
ground, that is, at the order arms, the command is : 

Sling — Carbine. 

1 time, 2 motions. 

1. At the. last part of the command, which is carbine, 
raise the carbine perpendicularly with the right hand, 
and place it in the left hand, which seizes it below the 
lower band, the thumb extended, the barrel to the front; 
incline the carbine to the right, that the rings may hang 
down, the left hand as high as and opposite to the neck; 
slip the swivel to the front with the right hand, the 
thumb pressing upon the short side to open it, insert it 
in the rings. 

12* 



138 THE PLATOON. 

2. Seize the carbine at the small of the stock with the 
right hand, iet it go with the left hand, which is dropped 
by the side ; pass the carbine behind the back, lowering 
the muzzle, push the butt to the rear, and drop the right 
hand by the side. 

Unsling — Carbine. 

1 time, 2 motions. 

1. At the last part of the command, which is carbine, 
seize the carbine at the small of the stock with the right 
hand, raise it, seize it again with the left hand below the 
lower band, the thumb extended, the hand as high as, 
and opposite to the neck ; incline the carbine to the 
right, free the swivil from the rings with the right hand, 
and push the swivil to the rear. 

2. Seize the carbine with the right band, above and 
near the left hand; bring it down, turning it at the same 
time, and resume the position of order. 

To leap the ditch and the bar. 

The instructor causes the troopers to leap the ditch 
and the bar by twos and by fours, and then by platoon. 



To leap the ditch. 



On am v'ing near the ditch, give the hand and close 
the legs, to force the horse to make the leap. The mo- 
ment he reaches the ground, raise slightly the hand in or- 
der to sustain him. 



To leap the Lar. 



On arriving near the bar, rein up the horse slightly, 
and close the legs. At the moment of making the leap, 
give the hand, and elevate it slightly as soon as he 
reaches the around on the other side. 



THE PLATOON. 139 

The trooper, in leaping, should cling to the horse with 
the thighs and calves of the legs, taking care to lean a 
little forward as the horse is in the act of springing, and 
to seat himself well by leaning to the rear at the moment 
the horse reaches the ground. 

Each trooper, after having made the leap, continues 
to move at the trot, and takes his place in the rank 
which is formed thirty paces beyond the obstacle, 
taking cnre to pass to the walk just before halting. 

During the first days of this exercise, the troopers leap 
without arms. 

When the troopers have leaped without arms, they 
repeat the same exercise with arms, and finally with the 
sabre drawn. 

The horses employed should be trained and accus- 
tomed lo leaping. If, however, a horse refuses to leap, 
the instructor aids the trooper with a whip. 

Remark. — The last four lessons belong to the drill of 
the trooper, but in most cases may be deferred until the 
close of the platoon exercises. 



CAVALRY TACTICS. 



IPJ^RT THIIRIX 



§rill of tjn Squadron. 

A Squadron is composed of 4 platoons, and is 
the proper tactical unit of Cavalry. 

As the Cavalry platoon always contains 12 or 16 
files, and is subdivided into fours, the Squadron 
is always (in rank and file) a multiple of 4 and of 
either 12 or 16. The rank and file strictly include 
those only who are counted or told off in the fours. 

If the number of troopers is sufficient, the platoon 
of 16 files is preferable; for then there will be in 
each platoon sub-divisions of 8 troopers, called sec- 
tions. 

Platoons of 12 are not divisible into sections, for 
the cavalry section requires 2 fours. 

Two platoons, containing 24 or 32 files, forming 
a company, division, or half-squadron, is drilled on 
the same principles as tbe complete squadron; for 
which purpose, officers, guides and file-closers will be 
posted, as in the squadron formation. 



THE SQUADRON. 141 

The senior officer is 1st Captain and Chief of 
the squadron; the next in rank is 2d Captain. He 
is charged with the alignment and supervision of 
the rear-rank and file-closers. 

The 1st Lieutenant commands the 1st platoon. 

The Lieutenant 2d in rank commands the 4th 
platoon. 

The Lieutenant 3d in rank commands the 2d 
platoon. 

The Lieutenant 4th in rank commands the 3d 
platoon. 

The number of officers and non-commissioned 
officers of a squadron is 22, viz. : 6 officers, 8 ser- 
geants and 8 corporals. Vacancies, if any, must 
be filled from the next lower grade. In assigning 
positions, the Chief will be styled No. 1, the 2d 
Captain No. 2, and so on to the 8th corporal, who 
will be No. 22. 

The positions in line of battle are as 
follows : 



No. 


1, 1 ya 


rd in front of centre of squadron. 


No. 


2, 3 


" 


rear " " 


No. 


3, 1 


n 


front " 1st platoon. 


No. 


4, 1 


it 


" " 4th " 


No, 


5, 1 


'■ 


" 2d " 


No. 


6, 1 


" 


" " 3d " 


No. 


V, 1 


Lt 


rear of 3d file from right of squadron 


No. 


8, 1 


it 


" " left " 


No. 


9, on right 


of squadron — not counted. 


No. 


10, on 


left 


a t. u 


No. 


11, 


U 


1st platoon — is counted. 


No. 


12, on 


right of 2d " 



142 THE SQUADRON. 

No. 13, on left of 3d platocn — is counted. 

No. 14, on right, of 4th " 

No. 15, " 1st " " 

No. 16, on left but one, 1st platoon — is counted. 

No. 17, on right " 2d " " 

No. 18, on left of 2d platoon — is counted. 

No. 19, on right of 3d " 

No. 20, on left but one, 3d platoon — is counted. 

No. 21, on right " 4th " 

No. 22, on left of 4th platoon — is counted. 

Fbmaek. — The commander may post his Corporals 
from right to left, either by their height or according to 
rank. 

Positions in columns of twos and fours. 

No. 1, 4 yards from flank, on side of guides, abreast 
centre of squadron. 

No. 2, 4 yards from flank, opposite the guides, abreast 
centre of squadron. 

No. 3, 1 yard in advance of the leading files of squad- 
ron. 

Nos. 4, 5 and 6, 1 yard from the flank, on side of 
guides, abreast the front files of their platoons; this is 
when the right is in front. 

When the left is in front, No. 4 heads the column, and 
Nos. 3, 5 and 6. are one yard to the right of the column, 
and abreast of their leading files ; Nos. 1 and 2 being 
on the right and left, at 4 yards distance. 

Nos. 7 and 8 (file-closers) one yard from the flank, 
opposite to the guides, and abreast the centre of their 
platoons. 

Nos. 11 and 12, ^-c, to No. 22, in their places as 
counted in the twos and fours. 

For the order in column of platoons and divisions, see 

PLATOON DRILL. 

The music is 25 yards in rear of the centre when in 
line ; the same distance from the flank, opposite to the 



THE SQUADRON. 143 

guides, when in column, until ordered to the front or 
rear by the commanding officer. One or rnore trump- 
eters, as may be ordered, accompany the commander of 
the squadron. 

The captain commanding causes the officers to al- 
ternate in the command of the platoons, that they may 
become familiar with all ihe positions in the squadron. 

He observes the same course with the non-commis- 
sioned officers, and gives them sometimes the command 
of a platoon, to enable them to replace an officer, should 
it become necessary. 

To make the formation in line better understood, they 
are executed at first from a halt. In this case, each 
platoon performs its movements separately and succes- 
sively, at the command of its chief, on receiving notice 
from the captain commanding. 

Each movement, after having been correctly executed 
by the right, is repeated by the left. 

When the squadron has acquired calmness and confi- 
dence, and one article is well understood, this article is 
repeated with sabres drawn, and alternately at all the 
gaits, except the wheels to the right, to the left, to the right- 
about, and to the left-about by fours, the counter-march, the 
wheels on a moveable pivot by squadron, the individual 
oblique marches when marching by squadron, which are 
executed only at the walk and at the trot. 

The second captain is charged with the alignment of 
the rear-rank and the rank of file-closers ; he resumes 
his place in line at the command front. 

The captain commanding moves wherever his pres- 
ence is most required; the troopers are required to ob- 
serve absolute silence, and all rectifications are done by 
signs, or in a low voice. 

The squadron being formed in two ranks opened, the 
non-commissioned officers and troopers at the head of 
their horses, the chief of platoon mounted, at 10 paces 
from, and facing the centre of their platoons, the captain 
commanding commands : 



144 THE SQUADRON. 

*1. Attention. 3. Feont. 

2. Right — Dress. 

He then commands ■. 
In each platoon — and in each rank — Count (hy) 

FOURS. 

At this command, the troopers count off in the 
four platoons at once, commencing on the right of 
each rank. 

The captain commanding then gives the command to 
mount. 

At the command form — banks, the chiefs of 
platoon move forward, face to the front by tinning 
to the right-about, and place themselves before the 
centre of their platoons, the croup of their horses 
one pace from the head of the horses of the front- 
rank. The fi e-closers follow the rear-rank. 

Successive alignment of platoons in the 
squadron. 

The squadron being in line, the captain-commanding 
places the two non-com missioned officers, principal guides 
of the right and left, upon a line parallel to the front of 
the squadron, at 3U paces from the particular guides, and 
facing each other as if they were placed on intermediate 
points. 

On receiving notice from the captain-commanding, the 
chief of the first platoon commands : 1. 'Platoon forward ; 
2. Guide right ; 3. March. 

*The orderly sergeant calls the loll, and reports the 
number of absentees to the commanding officer, as soon 
as the squadron is formed. 



THE SQUADRON. 145 

At the command MARCH, the platoon moves forward ; 
at one pace from the point which marks the new align- 
ment, the chief of the platoon commands: 1. Halt. 2. 
Right — Dress. 

At the command halt, the chiefof the platoon and the 
particular guide of the right, continue to march on and 
establish themselves immediately, the latter bringing the 
head of his horse against the boot of the principal guide 
of the right. 

The first platoon being correctly aligned, the first 
captain commands : 

1. By platoon — Right — Dress. 

2. Front. 

At the first command, the chief of the second 
platoon commands: 1. Platoon forward ; 2. Guide 
right; 3. March. The platoon having arrived 
abreast of the file closers of the platoon which forms 
the base of the alignment, he commands: 1. Halt ; 
2. Right — Dress, and at the same time moves for- 
ward on the line of the chief of that platoon. 

At the command halt, the platoon stops. At 
the command Right — Dress, all the troopers move 
forward together upon the alignment. 

Each chief of platoon executes successively the 
same movement, commanding march when the one' 
who precedes him has commanded HALT. 

The particular guide of the left, at the command 
halt, from the chief of the fourth platoon, brings 
iap the head of his horse against the boot of the 
principal guide of the left. 

The squadron being aligned, the captain com- 
manding commands : Front. 

This alignment being correctly executed, itis repeated, 
giving the new base of alignment a direction oblique to 

13 



146 THE SQTTAWCON. 

the front of the squadron. For this purpose, the 'chief of 
the first platoon, on receiving notice from the captain- 
commanding, mores his platoon 24 paces forward, causes 
it to execute a hall-wheel to the right at the commands ; 

1. Right half-~W}£EVL ; 2. Forward; and after march- 
ing it G paces in the new direction,- he halts and aligns it. 

The first platoon being correctly aligned, the first 
captain commands : 

1 . By platoon — Right — Dress. 

2. Front. 

At the first command, the movement is executed 
successively; each chief of platoon moves straight 
forward, and commands : 1. Riyht Aa£/"-=--WHEEL •; 

2. Forward, so that his platoon may finish its 
wheel on a fixed pivot at the moment the right 
arrives opposite the left of the platoon which pre- 
cedes it. 

The squadron being aligned, the first captain 
commands : Front. 

The captain commanding causes these different align- 
ments to be executed by the left, following the same' 
principles, but by inverse means. 

To open and close the ranks. 

To open the ranks, the first captain commands : 

1. Rear rank open order. 

2. March. 

3. Right — DRESS. 

4. Front. 

Which is executed as prescribed for the platoon. 
The troopers of the rear rank rein back 6 paces; 



THE SQUADRON. 147 

and the chiefs of platoon, at the command march, 
move forward 6 paces, and face the centre of their 
platoons by turning to the left- about. 

To close the ranks, tke first captain commands : 

1. Hear rank close order, 

2. JVlAftCH. 

■3. Eight — Dress. 
4. Front. 

Which is executed as prescribed in the platoon 
drill. The chiefs of platoon move forward at the 
■command MARCH, face to the front by a turn to the 
right-about, and place themselves opposite titae centre 
of their platoons. 

To break; the squadron by fours. 

The squadron being inline, the first captain commands ; 

1. By fours. 3. Guide left. 

2. March. 

At the first command, the chief of the first pla- 
toon places himself in front of the four files of the 
right, the right particular guide places himself on 
his right. 

At the command march, the four first files 
march straight forward, and are followed by all the 
other files who break successively, as prescribed in 
the platoon. 

The chiefs of the other platoons break with the 
four first files of their platoons, keeping abreast of 
them and at one pace from the flank of the column 



148 THE SQUADRON. 

on the side of the guide, each rank of fours preserv- 
ing between them the distance of 2 feet. 

Change of direction. 

The column marching in column by fours, right in front, 
to change the direction, the first captain commands ; 

Mead of column to the left (or to the right.) 

Which is executed as prescribed in the Platoon, 
the chief of the first platoon conforming to what is 
indicated for the assistant-instructor. 

Tlie squadron marching in column by 
fours, to form it to the front, to the 
left, or on right into line. 

1 he squadron marching in column by fours, right in 
front, the first captain commands : 

1. Front into line. 3. Right — Dress. 

2. March. 4. Front. 

At the command march, the four first files con- 
tinue to march straight forward ; when they have 
marched 30 paces, the chief of the first platoon 
commands : Halt. 

At this command, the four first files halt square 
to the front, the particular guide of the right re- 
turns to the right of the squadron. All the other 
files come up successively, and without the com- 
mands of the chiefs of platoon, form to the left and 
and upon the alignment of the first. 



THE SQUADRON. 149 

The first captain, who moves to the right flank 
after the command march, commands the align- 
ment when the chief of the first platoon commands 

HALT. 

The second captain moves also to the right flank, 
after the command march, in order to rectify the 
alignment of the rear rank and of the file-closers. 

As soon as the chiefs of platoon arrive upon the 
Sine, they place themselves at the centre of their 
platoons and align themselves. 

The particular guide of the left returns to the 
left of the squadron, when the four last files arrive 
upon the line. 

The first captain commands FRONT, when the four last 
files are aligned. 

The column marching right in front, to form it inline 
on its left flank, the first captain commands : 

1. Left into line. 3. Right — Dress. 

2. March. 4. Front. 

At the command march, the four leading files 
turn to the left and march straight forward ; when 
they have marched 30 paces, the chief of the first 
platoon commands : Halt. 

At this command, the four leading files halt, 
and the particular guide places himself on the 
right of the squadron. All the other files come 
up successively, and without the command of 
the chiefs of platoon, form to the left and on 
the alignment of the first, observing to keep in 
the same direction, before turning to the left, so 

19* 



150 THE SQUADRON. 

aa not to approach the new line until the proper 
time. 

The first and second captains, the chiefs of pla- 
toon, and the particular guide of the left, con- 
form exactly to what is prescribed forthe/rorei into 
line. 

The column marching right in front, to form line upon 
the prolongation and in advance of its right flank, the- 
first captain commands : 

1. On right into line. 3. Right — Dress. 

2. March. 4. Front. 

At the command march, the four leading files 
tarn to the right, and march straight forward; when 
they have marched BO paces, the chief of the first 
platoon commands : Halt. 

At this command, the four leading files halt, 
and the right particular guide takes his place on 
the right of the squadron. All the other files con- 
tinue to march forward, and come up successively 
without the commands of the chiefs of platoon, 
forming to the left and upon the alignment of the 
first, observing to keep themselves square in the 
same direction before turning to the right, so as 
not to approach the new line before the proper 
time. 

The first and second captains, the chiefs of 
platoon, and the left particular guide, conform 
exactly to what is prescribed for the front into line. 

The squadron is broken by the left, at the commands ' 
1. By fours from the left; 2. March; 3. Guide right. 
When tbfi nrinciples of the direct march in column by 



THE SQUADRON. 151 

fours, the changes of direction, the obliques, and the 
different formations in line are firmly impressed, all 
these movements are executed at the trot, and then at the 
gallop. 

To regulate the rapidity of- the gaits. 

When the marches and formations, prescribed above, 
have given sufficient uniformity and precision to the gait, 
the captain commanding will regulate their rapidity. 
For this purpose he measures off two distances, each 
about 1,000 paces, and causes them to be passed over 
successively at all the gaits, to assure himself that, at the 
walk, from 100 to 110 paces is passed over per minute, 
at the trot, from 200 to 240 per minute, and at the gallop, 
about 300 paces per minute. 

When the rapidity of the gaits has been properly de- 
termined, the squadron is required to pass successively 
from the walk to the trot, and from the trot to the gallop, and 
if the column becomes disunited at the gallop, it resumes 
the trot, and then the walk. 

When the squadron has acquired precision and regu- 
larity in the formations at the different gaits, the captain 
commanding exercises the squadron in breaking by fours 
from a halt, at the trot, and at the gallop. 

In very even ground, the distance above indicated may 
be passed over in a shorter time, but the rapidity of the 
gaits should be increased only under extraordinary cir- 
cumstances. 



To form the squadron in one rank, and 
to form it in two ranks. 



To form the squadron in one rank, and to re-form it in 
two ranks, the captain commanding conforms to what is 
prescribed in the platoon. 

The formation of the squadron in one rank, is employed 



152 THE SQUADRON. 

for inspections • in this case, the officers pass to the 
right of the squadron, and after them, the non-commis- 
sioned officers, troopers, and trumpeters, according to 
their rank. 

The squadron being in line, to form it in 
column with distance. 

The first captain commands : 

1. Platoons right wheel. 

2. March. 

3. Halt. 

At the first command, the left file of each pla- 
toon prepares to step off promptly, and the pivot to 
turn upon its own ground. 

At the command march, each platoon executes 
its wheel to the right, following the principles of 
the wheel on a fixed pivot, the marching flanks tak- 
ing care to step off and wheel together. 

At the command halt, the marching flanks and 
all the troopers halt at the same instant, those of 
the rear rank resuming their places behind their 
file-leaders. 

The first captain commands halt, when the platoons 
have nearly completed the wheels. 

The chiefs of platoon, without leaving the centre of 
their platoons, observe that the movement is correctly 
executed; after the wheels, if any guide rinds himself 
not in the direction of the one preceding him, he should 
not endeavor to correct his position until after the march 
is commenced. 

During the movement, the particular guide of the left 
passes as file-closer behind tire second file from the left 
of the fourth platoon. 



THE SQUADRON. 153 

The first captain assures himself that each officer and 
non-commissioned officer preserves the place assigned to 
him in this order of column. 

To march in column with distance. 

The squadron being in open column, right in front, the 
first captain commands: 

1. Column forward. 

2. March. 

3. Guide left. 

At the command march, all the platoons put them- 
selves in motion at the same time. 

Before the column commences the march, the first 
captain gives the guide of the first platoon a point of 
direction ; this non-commissioned officer selects inter- 
mediate points, so as to be sure of marching straight. 
The fixed object given to the guide of the first platoon, 
is also pointed out to the guide of the second. These 
two non-commissioned officers preserve, during the 
march, the direction which has been given to them. 

The guides of the third and fourth platoons keep ex- 
actly in the same direction. 

Changes of direction by successive wheels. 

In the open column, the changes of direction are exe- 
cuted by successive wheels on a moveable pivot, so that 
the march of the column may not lie retarJed. The arc 
of circle described by the pivots should be of Spaces. 

The column being in march, to change the direction, 
the first captain commands: 

Head of column to the left or half. left (or to the 
right or half-right. 



154 THE SQUADRON. 

At this command, the chief of the first platooR 
commands: 1. Left — Turn; 2. Forward; which 
is executed on the principles of the wheel upon a 
moveable pivot. 

Bach chief of platoon gives the same commands 
successively, so that his platoon may turn upon the 
same ground. 

In this change of direction while marching, the 
principal guide of the right, at the command head 
of column to the left, moves rapidly to the side of 
the pivot, and places himself so that the head of 
his horse will mark the centre point of the arc de- 
scribed by the pivots. 

All the platoons commence their wheel at 2| 
paces before arriving abreast of the head of the 
horse of the principal guide of the right, so as to 
prevent the column from being thrown out. This 
raon-commissioned officer resumes his place when 
the last platoon has completed its wheel. 

Immediately after having changed the direction of the 
column, the first captain gives a new point of direction 
to tlie guide of the first platoon. 

The exact preservation of distances, after the changes 
of direction, depends upon the equality of the increase 
given to the gait by the marching flanks; it is then im- 
portant that the leading platoon should turn neither too 
rapidly nor too slowly, and that each platoon should 
regulate the rapidity of its wheel upon that of the one 
which precedes -it. 

When the change of direction is executed from the side 
opposite to the guide, the pivot becomes the guide during 
the wheel. 



THE SQUADRON. 155 

Individual oblique march. 

The squadron marching in column, with distance, 
right in front, to cause it to gain ground towards one of 
its flanks,- without changing the front of the column, the 
first captain commands : 

1. Left (or right) oblique. 

2. March. 

Which is executed at the same time, in each 
platoon, as prescribed in the platoon. 

The guides- of the three last platoons pay atten- 
tion to march on the same line, to preserve their 
distances, and keep it in a direction exactly parallel 
to that of the guide of the first platoon. 

To resume the primitive direction, the first captain 
commands : 

Forward. 

Which is executed at the same time, in each 
platoon. 

When the oblique march is executed towards 
the side opposite to the guide, the file-closers pre- 
serve their places, notwithstanding the change of 
guide. 

Change of gait, being in column with 
distance. 

The column is made to pass from the walk to the trot, 
and from the trot to the walk, and when the platoons exe- 



156 THE SQUADRON. 

cute these changes of gait with uniformity and steadi- 
ness, tli e column is made to commence the march at a 
trot, and to halt while marching at the trot. 

The first captain observes that the platoons halt, step 
off, and change the gait at the same instant. 

He directs the head of the column sometimes to in- 
crease or diminish the gait slightly, without command, to 
judge of the attention of the guides, and to habituate 
them to conforming to the movements of the guides who 
precede them. 

To break by fours, by twos, and by file ; 
to form twos, fours and platoons at 
the same gait. 

The squadron marching in column with distance, right 
in front, to break by fours at the same gait, the first 
captain commands : 

1. By fours. 3. Guide left. 

2. March. 

At the first command, repeated by the chief of 
the first platoon, this officer, and the particular 
guide of the right, place themselves as prescribed, 
in breaking by fours from a halt. 

At the command march, repeated by the chief 
of the first platoon, this platoon breaks by fours, 
and the chiefs of the three last platoons command : 
Halt. 

The chief of the second platoon, and successively 
those of the third and fourth, command by fours, in 
sufficient time to command march, the moment 
the four last files of the preceding platoon com- 



THE SQUADRON. 157 

mence their oblique movement in order to enter 
the column. 

The squadron marching in column by fours, right in 
front, to break by twos, at the same gait, the first cap- 
tain commands : 

1. By twos. 3. Guide left. 

2. March. 

The chiefs of platoon conform to what is pre- 
scribed in order to break by fours, and give the 
commands: Halt, and then — 1. By twos; 2. 
March, so as to cause no confusion in the column. 

The squadron marching in column by twos, right in 
front, to break by file at the same gait, the first captain 
commands: 

1. By file. 2. March. 

Which is executed as just prescribed, in order 
to break by twos, the particular guide of the right 
placing himself behind the chief of the first platoon 

The squadron marching in column with distance, at 
the trot, right in front, to break by fours, at the same 
gait, the first captain commands : 

1. By fours. 3. Guide left. 

2. March. 

At the first command, repeated by the chief of 
the first platoon, this officer, and the particular 
guide of the right, place themselves as prescribed 
in breaking the squadron by fours from line, and 
the chiefs of the three last platoons command : 
Walk. 

14 



158 THE SQUADRON. 

At the command march, repeated by all the 
chiefs of platoon, the first platoon breaks by fours, 
and the three last platoons take the walk. 

The chief of the second platoon, and successively 
those of the third and fourth, command by fours — 
trot, in sufficient time to command march, when 
the four last files of the preceeding platoon com- 
mence their oblique movement in order to enter the 
column. 

The same principles are applicable to breaking by 
twos and by file. 

When the column is at the gallop, these movements 
are executed on the principles just prescribed, the 'whole 
column except the four first files passing to the trot and 
resuming successively the gallop, as the files break in 
order to enter the column. 

The squadron marching in column by file, right in 
front, to form twos at the same gait, the first captain 
commands : 

1. Form twos. 2. March. 

At the command form twos and march, suc- 
cessively repeated by the chief of the first platoon, 
this platoon executes its movement as prescribed in 
the platoon drill ; the particular guide of the right 
moves to the right of the chief of the first platoon, 
who commands halt, after having marched 10 
paces. 

The three other platoons continue to march by 
file, and execute successively their formation at the 
commands of their chiefs, who do not command 
march, until the first files of their platoons arrive 
at their proper distance. 



THE SQUADRON. 159 

The squadron marching in column by twos, right in 
front, to form platoon at the same gait, the first captain 
commands: 

1. Form/ours. 2. March. 

Which is executed as prescribed, in order to form 
twos. 

The squadron marching in column by fours, right in 
front, to form platoon at the same 'gait, the first captain 
commands : 

1. Form platoons. 2. March. 

At the first command, the chief of the first pla- 
toon commands : Form platoon. 

At the command march, repeated by the chief 
of the first platoon, the particular guide of Ihe right 
places himself on the right of this platoon, which 
forms as prescribed in the platoon drill; the chief of 
the platoon commands halt, after having marched 
20 paces. 

The other platoons continue to march in column 
by fours, and form successively at the commands : 
1. Form platoon ; 2, March, given by their chiefs 
in sufficient time to command halt, when the four 
first files of their platoon arrive at 6 paces from the 
platoon which precedes. 

When the column is at the trot, the same principles are 
conformed to, except that instead of halting the two or 
four first files of the first platoon pass to the walk, at the 
command march given by their chief. The other platoons 
continue to march at the trot, and execute their move- 
ment at the same gait, the two or four first files of each 
platoon passing also to the walk, at the command MARCH 



160 THE SQUADRON. 

given by their chiefs, when they arrive at their proper 
distance. 

When the column is at the gallop, to form twos, fours, 
&c., the same principles are observed, the two or four 
first files of each platoon passing to the trot at the com- 
mand march, given by their chief. 

When these formations are executed at the trot, and at 
the gallop, the guide is announced by the first captain as 
soon as the first files have doubled, or the first platoon is 
formed; in the last case only, each chief of platoon re- 
peats the command of the guide as soon as his platoon is 
formed. 

In these formations at the walk, the guide is not an- 
nounced, as the head of the column halts. 

To break by fours, by twos, and by file ; 
to form twos, fours, and platoons ; 
doubling the gait. 

The squadron marching in column with distance, right 
in front, to break by fours, doubling the gait, the first 
captain commands : 

1. By fours — trot. 2. March. 3. Guide left. 

At the first command, repeated by the chief of 
the first platoon, this officer and the particular guide 
of the right, place themselves as prescribed in 
breaking by fours from line. 

At the command march, repeated by the chief 
of the first platoon, this platoon breaks by fours, as 
prescribed in the platoon drill. 

The other platoons continue to march at the 
walk; their chiefs command successively by fours 



THE SQUADRON. 161 

— trot, in sufficient time to command march, the 
moment the four last files of the preceding platoon 
commence their oblique movement, in order to en- 
ter the column. 

These principles are applicable to breaking by twos 
and by file. 

When the column is at the trot, to break at the gallop, 
the same principles are observed, at the commands : 
1. By fours — gallop; 2. March; 3. Guide left. 

When the column is at the gallop, these movements are 
always executed at the same gait. 

The squadron marching in column by file to form twos, 
doubling the gait, the first captain commands : 

1. Form twos — trot. 2. March. 3. Guide left. 

At the command/cwm twos — trot and March, 
successively repeated by the chief of the first pla- 
toon, this platoon executes its movement as pre- 
scribed in the platoon drill, and the particular guide 
of the right moves to the right of the chief of the 
first platoon. 

At the first command, the chiefs of the three last 
platoons command : trot. At the command march, 
repeated by them, the three last platoons take the 
trot. 

The chief of the second platoon, alnd successively 
those of the third and fourth, command : Form 
twos, in sufficient time to command march, the 
moment the first file of their platoons is nearly at 
its proper distance; the first file then passes to the 
walk. 

14* 



162 THE SQUADRON. 

The squadron inarching in column by twos, to form- 
fours, doubling the gait, the first Captain commands : 

1. Form fours — trot. 3. Guide left. 

2. March. 

Which is executed as just prescribed in order to 
form twos. 

The squadron marching in column by fours, to form 
platoon, doubling the gait, the first captain commands : 

1. Form platoons — trot. 3. Guide left. 

2. March. 

At the first command, the chief of the first pla- 
toon commands: Form platoon — trot. 

The chiefs of the three last platoons command 
trot. 

At the command march, repeated b^ these offi- 
cers, the first platoon forms as prescribed in the 
platoon drill, and the particular guide of the right 
places himself on the right of this platoon. 

The three last platoons take the trot, and form 
successively at the command form platoon, given 
by their chiefs in sufficient time to command 
MARCH, when the four first files arrive at their pro- 
per distance from the platoon which precedes them ; 
then these four first files take the walk. 

The first captain commands guide left when the first 
platoon is formed, and gives a point of direction. 

Eacli chief of platoon repeats successively the com- 
mand of the guide as soon as his platoon is formed. 

When the column is at the trot, these formations are 



THE SQUADRON. 163 

executed at the gallop, following the same principles, 
at the command : 1. Form twos, or form fours, or form 
platoons — gallop; 2. March. 

When the column is at the gallop, these movements 
are executed as prescribed, in forming at the same gait, 
the head of the column passing to the trot at the com- 
mand MARCH. 

The foregoing movements are employed in passing 
defiles, the first captain placing himself always at the 
head of his squadron in order to direct the movements 
of it according to the localities. If it happens that the 
chiefs of the last platoons do not hear the command, 
they conform immediately to the movements of the pla- 
toons which precede them. 

The squadron marching in column with 
distance, to face it in the opposite 
direction, and to face it again to the 
front. 

The squadron marching in open column, right in 
front, the first captain commands : 

1 Platoons left-about wheel. 2. March. 

At the first command, the trooper on the left of 
each platoon, who becomes the pivot, prepares to 
halt, without however slackening his pace. 

At the command, March, the pivots halt, and 
the marching flanks wheel at the gait in which the 
column was marching, regulating themselves upon 
the outer flank of the platoon at the head of the 
column, so as to complete the first half of the 
movement at the same instant. 



164 THE SQUADRON. 

The marching flanks are then governed by the 
platoon, which becomes the head of the column 
after the movement is completed. 

The movement being nearly finished, the first captain 
commands : 

1. Forward. 2. Guide right. 

Dining this movement, the particular guide of the left 
places himself on the left of the fourth platoon; the 
particular guide of the right takes his place as file- 
closer in rear of the second file from the right of the 
first platoon, and the other file-closers pass to the side 
opposite to the guide. 

To cause the squadron to resume its primitive direc- 
tion, the first captain commands: 1. Platoons right-about 
wheel; 2. March; 3. Forward; 4. Guide left; which 
is executed as just prescribed, but by inverse means. 

To wheel-about is usually commanded towards the 
side of the guide; it may, however, be towards the 
other side when it becomes necessary. 

To halt the column. 

The column being on the march, to halt it, the first 
captain commands: 

1. Column. 2. Halt. 

At the first command, all the platoons prepare 
to halt. 

At the command halt, all the platoons halt at 
the same time. 

After the command halt, there should be no movement 



THE SQUADRON. 165 

_n the platoons, the distances and directions should be 
corrected only in marching. 

The first captain places himself behind the guide of 
the second platoon, to see if the guides of the first and 
second platoon have marched upon the point indicated ; 
he also observes if the prescribed distances have been 
preserved. If they have not been, and if the guides 
have not marched upon the point indicated, the column 
is put again in march, in order to correct their distances 
and direction. 

To form line on the left. 

The squadron being in column with distance, right in 
front, to form it in line on its left flank, the first captain 
commands : 

1. Left into line wheel. 4. Right — Dress. 

2. March. 5. Front. 

3. Halt. 

At the first command, the particular guide of the 
right moves upon the prolongation of the direction 
of the guides of the column, at the distance of the 
front of a platoon, facing the side towards which 
the line will be formed. 

At the command march, the squadron wheels 
into line, the trooper on the left flank of each 
platoon serving as pivot, and turning upon his own 
ground. 

The first captain commands HALT, the moment 
the marching flanks have nearly completed their 
movement, and then right — dress. 

At this command, all the platoons align them- 
selves. 



166 THE SQUADRON. 

* 

The squadron being aligned, the first captain 
commands front. 

During the wheel, the particular guide of the 
left resumes his place in line. 

The first captain, after having commanded left into line 
ivheel, assures himself, before commanding MARCH, that 
the particular guide of the right is exactly upon tlie 
direction of the guides of the column. 

Immediately after commanding halt, he moves rapidly 
to the right flank of the squadron, to observe that the 
pivots execute their movements properly, and that the 
officers and troopers align themselves correctly. 

The particular guide, who moves upon the prolonga- 
tion of the guides of the column, should take rather too 
much ground than not enough. The conductor of the 
marching flank of the leading platoon should align him- 
self upon this guide, without endeavoring to approach 
him. 

To form the squadron in column with distance, left in 
front, the first captain commands : 1. Platoons left wheel; 
■2. March; 3. Halt; which is executed as prescribed, 
when right in front, but by inverse means. 

To march in column with distance, left in front, the 
first captain commands: 1. Column forward; 2. March ; 
3. Guide right ; which is executed as prescribed, when 
the column has the right in front. 

The changes of direction by successive wheels, and 
the individual oblique march, when the column has the 
left in front, are executed on the same principles as 
when the right is in front; except, that in the changes 
oi direction, it is the principal guide of the left who 
marks the point of the wheel, placing himself as has 
been prescribed for the principal guide of the right, 
when the right is in front. 

The squadron marching in column with distance, left 
in front, it is made to break by fours, by twos, and by file, 
to form twos, fours, and platoons, at the same gait, or 



THE SQUADRON. 167 

doubling the gait, following the principles prescribed 
when the right is in front, but by inverse means. 

To break by fours, twos, &c, the first captain com- 
mands : 1. By fours ( or by twos , or by file ) from the left ; 
2. March. 

The squadron marching in column with distance, left 
in front, to face it in the opposite direction, the same 
principles are followed as when the right is in front, but 
by inverse means. 

The squadron marching in column with distance, left 
in front, to halt it, conform to the principles prescribed 
when the right is in front. 

The squadron being in column with distance, left 
in front, to form it in line on the right, the first captain 
commands: 1. Right into line wheel; 2. March; 3. 
Halt; 4. Left — Dress; 5. Front. 

To break by the right to march to the 
left. 

The squadron being in line, the first captain com- 
mands : 

1. Platoons break by the right — to march to the 
left. 

2. March. 

At the first command, the chief of the first 
platoon commands; 1. Platoon forward; 2. Guide 
left. 

At the command MARCH, repeated by the chief 
of the first platoon, this platoon marches 10 paces 
to the front, turns to the left, and moves forward at 
the commands: 1. Left — Turn; 2. Forward. 

The chief of the second platoon, and successively 
those of the third and fourth, command : 1. Platoon 



168 THE SQUADRON. 

forward; 2. Guirff l<ft; when the chief of the 
platoon on their right commands march; and they 
command march, when the chief of that platoon, 
after having turned to the left, commands : For- 
ward. 

To form line to the right by inversion. 

The squadron marching in open column, right in front, 
to form it in line upon its right flank by inversion, the 
first captain changes the guide; for this purpose, he 
commands : 

Guide right. 

The second captain passes by the rear of the column 
to the side opposite to the guides ; the first captain passes 
by the head of the column to the side of the new guides, 
rectifies their direction, then halts the column and com- 
mands : 

1. By inversion right into line icheel. 

2. March. i. Left — Dress. 
o. Halt. 5. Front. 

Which is executed as prescribed, but by inverse 
means, as in forming line on the left. 

During the movement, the particular guide of the 
left places himself on the right of the fourth platoon, 
and the particular guide of the right, who moves on 
the prolongation of the new guides of the column, 
remains on the left of the first platoon. 

To put the squadron again in column, right in front, 
the first captain commands: 1. Platoons left wheel; 
2. March: 3. Halt (or Forward ) ; 4. Guide left. 



THE SQUADRON. 169 

The first captain passes to the side of the guides, the 
second captain passes to the opposite side. 

The squadron may also be put in line in natural older, 
by wheeling the platoon to the left, (or to the ri°ht) about. 
The second captain foHows the marching flank of the 
platoon behind which he is placed. 

The squadron being in line, it is broken by the left to 
inarch to the right, on the principles prescribed, but. by 
inverse means, at the commands : 1. Platoons break by 
the left — to march to the right ; 2. March. 

The squadron marching in column with distance, left 
in front, it is formed in line on its left flankby inversion, 
(after having changed the guide andhalted the column,) 
on the principles prescribed, but by inverse means, at 
the commands: 1. By inversion left into line wheel ; 2. 
March; 3. Halt; 4. Right — Dress; 5. Front. 

To put the squadron again in column, left in front, the 
first captain commands: 1. Platoon right wheel; 2. 
March; 3. Halt (or Forward); 4. Guide right. 

The squadron may also be put in natural order, by 
wheeling the platoons to the right (or left) about. 

To break to the rear by the right to 
march to the left 

The squadron being in line, the first captain com- 
mands : 

1. Platoons break by the right to the rear — to 
march to the left. 

2. March. 

At the first command, the chief of the first pla- 
toon commands : Platoon right-about wheel. 
15 



170 THE SQUADRON. 

At the command march, repeated by the chief 
of the first platoon, this platoon executes its wheel 
to the right-ahmit ; when nearly terminated, its 
chief commands: 1. Forward; 2. Guide left; 
and after marching 10 paces straight forward, he 
commands: 1. Right— Turn ; 2. Forward. 

The chief of the second platoon, and successively 
those of the third and fourth, command: Platoon 
right-about whal, when the chief of the platoon on 
their right commands march, and they command 
march, when that platoon has passed over three- 
fourths of its first wheel. 

To form on right into line. 

The squadron marching in column with distance. 
right in front, to form it in line on the prolongation and 
in advance of its right flank, the first captain commands : 

1. On right into line. 3. Guide right. 

2. March. 4. Front. 

At the first command, the chief of the first pla- 
toon commands, Right. 

At the command march, he commands, Turn ; 
the platoon turns to the right and moves forward 
at the command Forward; when it has marched 
'->0 paces, its chief commands Halt, and then 
Right — Dress. 

The other platoons continue to march forward, 
without approaching the line ; as soon as each one 
arrives abreast of the fourth file from the left of 
the platoon which should be on its right, its chief 
commands: 1. Right — Turn; 2. Forward; this 



THE SQUADRON. 171 

platoon then directs itself towards the place it is to 
occupy in line, and on arriving abreast of the file- 
closers, its chief commands Halt, and then Right — 
Dress. 

The squadron being aligned, the first captain 
commands, Front. 

To form on left into line by inversion. 

The squadron marching in column with distance, 
right in front, to form it in line upon the prolongation 
and in advance of its left flank, the first captain com- 
mands : 

1. By inversion on left into line. 

2. March. 

3. Guide left. 

4. Front. 

At the first command the chief of the first pla- 
toon commands Left. 

At the command march, he commands Turn ; 
the platoon turns to the left, and moves forward 
at the command forward; when it lias marched 
30 paces, its chief commands, Halt, and then 
Left — Dress. 

The other platoons continue to march forward, 
without approaching the line: as each platoon ar- 
rives abreast of the fourth file from the right of 
the platoon which should be on its left, its chief 
commands: 1. Left — Turn ; 2. Forward; this 
platoon directs itself towards the place it is to oc- 
cupy in line, and on arriving abreast of the file- 
closers, its chief commands, Halt, and then Left — 
Dress. 



17- THE SQUADKON. 



The 



squadron being aligned, the first captain 
commands : Front. 

The squadron being in line, it is broken by the left to 
the rear to march to the right, on the principles pre- 
scribed, but by inverse means, at the commands— 1. 
Platoons break by the left to the rear — to march to tk 
right j J. March. 

The squadron marching in column with distance, left 
in front, to form it in line on the prolongation and in 
advance ofits left flank, lollowthe principles prescribed, 
but by inverse means, at the commands: 1. On left into 
line ; 2 Makch ; 3. Guide left ; 4. Front. 

The squadron marching in column with distance, left 
in front, to form it iu line upon the prolongation and in 
advance of its right flank, conform to the principles 
prescribed, but by inverse means, at the commands — 1. 
By inversion on right into line ; 2. March; 3. Guide right; 
•1. Front. 

To break by platoons to the front. 

The squadron being in line, the first captain commands: 

1. By platoons to the front* 

2. March. 

3. Guide left. 

At the first command, the chief of the first plar 
toon commands : Platoon forward, and the chiefs 
of the three other platoons : Platoon right half- 
icheel. 

At the command march, repeated by these ofii- 



*The words '-to the front,'' are superfluous ; it is better 
to command: By platoons, March, Guide left. 



THE SQUADRON. 173 

cers, the first platoon moves forward ; its chief re- 
peats the indication of the guide. 

Each of the other chiefs of platoon, when their 
half-wheel to the, right is executed, commands: 1. 
Forward ; 2. Guide left, and then marches 
straight forward. When the left of his platoon 
arrives in the direction of the platoon which pre- 
cedes, he commands : 1. Left half-wheel; 2. 
March ; 3. Forward, in order to enter the 
column. 

The first captain does not announce the guide until 
the first platoon has broken to the front ; and he gives 
the guide a point of direction. 

To form front into line. 

The squadron being in column with distance, right 
in front, to form it in line upon-the head of tlie column, 
the first captain commands: 

1. Front into line. 3. Guide right. 

2. March. 4. Front. 

At the first command, the chief of the first pla- 
toon commands : Platoon forward, and the chiefs 
of the three other platoons command: Platoon left 
half -wheel. 

At the command march, repeated by these "offi- 
cers, the first platoon moves forward ; its chief 
repeats the indication of the guide, and when it 
has marched 30 paces, he commands: 1. Halt; 
2. Right — Dress. 

Each of the other chiefs of platoon, when the left 

half wheel is executed, commands : 1 Forward ; 
1** 



174 THE SQUADRON. 

2. Guide right, and marches straight forward. 
When the right of his platoon arrives opposite the 
left of the platoon which precedes, he commands : 1. 
Right half wheel; 2. Forward; and when he 
arrives abreast of the file-closer: 1. Halt; 2. Right 
— Dress. 

The squadron being aligned, the first captain 
commands : Front. 

This formation is executed in the same manner, when 
the column is on the march ; in this case, the chief of 
the first platoon, continuing to march on, does not com- 
mand platoon forward, nor march, but repeats the indi- 
cation ofthe guide. 

The squadron being in line, it is broken by the left by 
platoons to march to the front, on the principles pre- 
scribed, but by inverse means, at the commands: 1. 
By the left — by platoons to the front; 2. March; 3. Guide 
right.* 

The squadron being in column with distance, left 
in front, it is formed in line on the head of column, fol- 
lowing the principlss just prescribed, but by inverse 
means, at the commands: 1. Front into line ; 2. March ; 

3. Guide left; 4. Front. 

This formation is executed, when the column is 
marching, as prescribed above. 

To break by platoons to the right, and 
to move forward after the wheel. 

The squadron being in line, the first captain commands : 

1. Platoons right wheel 3. Forward. 

2. March. 4. Guide left. 

*It is better *" -.~-„„a Tti, nlninnns from the left. 



THE SQUADRON. 175 

At the first command, the left file of each platoon 
prepares to step off promptly, and the pivot to turn 
upon itself. 

At the command march, each platoon executes 
its wheel to the right, following the principles of 
the wheel on a fixed pivot. 

At the third command, the platoons march 
straight forward. 

The first captain commands forward, when the 
wheels are nearly completed, and gives a point of di- 
rection to the guide of the column ; he observes that 
the marching flanks step off at the same instant, wheel 
and arrive together in column, and that the pivots com- 
mence the march together at the command forward. 

To form line to the front by inversion. 

The squadron being in open column, right in front, to 
form line by inversion upon the 1 head of the column, the 
first captain commands : 

1. By inversion front into line. 3. Guide left. 

2. March. 4. Front. 

At the first command, the chief of the first pla- 
toon commands, Platoon forward ; and the three 
other chiefs of platoon command, Platoon right half 
wheel. 

At the command march, repeated hy these offi- 
cers, the movement is executed as prescribed for 
forming front into line, hut by inverse means. 

This formation is executed in the same manner, when 
the column is marching; in this case, the chief of the 
first platoon does not command platoon forward, nor 
MARCH, but repeats the indication of the guide. 



176 THE SQUADRON. 

The squadron being in line, it is broken by platoons to 
the left, in order to move forward after the wheel, fol- 
lowing the principles prescribed, but by inverse means, 
at the commands : I., Platoons left wheel; 2. March; 3. 
Forward ; 4. Guide right. 

The squadron being in column with distance, left in 
front, to form line by inversion upon the head of the 
eolumn, follow tlie principles just prescribed, but by in- 
verse means, at the commands : 1. By inversion front into 
line; 2. March; 3. uuide right : 4. Front. 

Tliis formation is executed in the same manner, when 
ihe column is marching ; in this case, the chief of the 
first platoon does not command platoon forward, nor 
MARCH, but repeats the indication of the guide. 

To break by platoons to the right, head 
of column to the left or half left 

The squadronbeingin line, the first captain commands. 

1. Platoons right vficel — head of column to the 
left or half left. 
' 2. March." 

3. Forward. 

4. Guide left. 

At the command march, each platoon executes 
its wheel to the right. 

At the third command, the chief of the first pla- 
toon commands, 1. Left — Turn; 2. Forward; 
the other platoons move on and turn successively at 
the command of their chiefs, on the ground upon 
which the first had turned. 

The first captain commands, forward, when the wheels 
ire nearly con: -"-■-■-• ' ,: — '-'"J. 



THE SQUADRON. 177 

To form line faced to the rear, on the 
rear of the column. 

The squadron being in column with distance, right in 
front, to form line faced to the rear, the first captain 
commands : 

1. Platoons left about wheel. 4. March. 

2. March. 5. Guide left. 

3. Front into line. 6. Front. 

At the second command, each platoon execute? 
its wheel to the left about. 

At the fourth command, the chief of the fourth 
platoon, which becomes the head of the column, 
when its wheel is nearly completed, commands : 
1. Forward; 2. Guide left; and when it has 
marched 30 paces, 1. Halt; 2. Left — Dress. 

The chiefs of the other platoons, on completing 
three-fourths of their wheel, command : 1. For- 
ward ; 2. Guide left ; and direct themselves 
towards the place they are to occupy in line, con- 
forming in other respects to what is prescribed for 
front into line, when the column h&s its left-in front. 

The first captain commands, front into line, in sufficient 
time to command MARCH, and Guide left, when the pla- 
toons have completed three-fourths of their wheel. 

To form line faced to the rear, "by inver- 
sion, on the rear of the column. 

The squadron being in column with distance, right in 
front, and obstacles are presented upon its left flank, to 
form line faced to the rear, the first captain commands: 



178 THE SQUADRON. 

1. Platoons right-about wheel. 4. March. 

2. March. 5. Guide right. 

3. By inversion front into line. 6. Front. 

At the second command, each platoon executes 
its wheel to the right-about. 

At the fourth command, the chief of the fourth 
platoon, which becomes the head of the column, 
when its wheel is nearly completed, commands : 
1. Forward; 2. Guide right; and when it has 
marched 30 paces, 1. Halt ; 2. Right — Dress. 

The chief of the other platoons, at three-fourths 
of the wheel, command : 1. Forward; 2. Guide 
right ; and direct themselves towards the place 
they are to occupy in line, conforming, in other 
respects, to what is prescribed for by inversion front 
into line, when the left is in front. 

The squadron being in line, to break it by platoons to 
the left, head of column to the right (or half right), fol- 
low the principles prescribed, but by inverse means, at 
the commands : 1. Platoons left wheel — head of eolunin to 
the right (or half right) ; 2. March ; 3. Forward ; 4. 
Guide right. 

The squadron being in column with distance, left in 
front, to form line faced to the rear, follow the principles 
prescribed, but by inverse means, at. the commands : 1. 
Platoons right about wheel ; 2. March ; 3. Front into 
line; 4. March; 5. Guide right ; 6. Front. 

The squadron being in column with distance, left in 
front, and obstacles are presented on its light flank, to 
form line faced to the rear, follow the principles pre- 
scribed, but by inverse means, at the commands : I. 
Platoons left-about wheel ; 2. March; 3. By inversion front 
into line; 4. March; 5. Guide left ; 6. Froxt. 



THE SQUADRON. 179 

To break by platoons to the right, head 
of column to the right (or half right.) 

The squadron being in line, the first captain com- 
mands : 

1. Platoons right icJieel — head of column to the 
right (or half right.) 

2. March. 

3. Forward. 

4. Guide left. 

At the command march, each platoon executes 
its wheel to the right. 

At the third command, the chief of the first pla- 
toon commands : 1. Bight — Turn; 2 Forward. 
The other platoons move on, and turn successively 
at the command of their chief, on the same ground. 

The first captain commands Forward, when the 
wheels are nearly completed : 

To form line faced to the rear on the 
head of the column. 

The squadron being in column 'with distance, light 
in front, to form line upon the head or the column faced 
to the rear, the first captain commands: 

1. By inversion front into line. 3. Guide left. 

2. March. 

Which is executed as prescribed for by inversion 



IaO THE SQUADRON. 

front into line, right in front, but without rectifying 
the alignment. 

The squadron being formed, the first captain immedi- 
ately commands : 

1. Platoon left-about wheel. 4. Right — DEES;', 

2. March. 5. Front. 

3. Halt. 

To form line faced to the rear, by in- 
version, on the head of the column. 

The squadron being in column with distance, right 
in front, and obstacles are presented on its right flank, 
to form line upon the head of the column, faced to the 
rear, the first captain commands: 

1. Front into line. 3. Guide right. 

2. March. 

Which is executed as prescribed for front into 
line, right in front, but without rectifying the align- 
ment. 

The squadron being formed, the first captain imme- 
diately commands : 

1. Platoons right-about wheel. 4. Left — Dress. 

2. March. 5. Front. 

3. Halt. 

The squadron being in line, to break by platoons to 
the left, head of column to the leftor half left, follow the 
principles prescribed, but by inverse means, at the com- 
mands: 1. Platoons left ivheel — head of column to the left 
(or half left): 2. March; 3. Forward; 4. Guide right. 



THE SQUADRON. 181 

The squadron being in column with distance, left in 
front, to form line upon the head of the column, faced to 
the rear, follow the principles prescribed, but by inverse 
means, at the commands: 1. By inversion front into line ; 

2. March; 3. Guide right; and the squadron being 
formed, 1. Platoons right-about wheel; 2. March; 3. 
Halt ; 4. Left- — Dress ; 5. Front. 

The squadron being in column with distance, left in 
front, and obstacles are presented upon its left flank, to 
form in line upon the head of the column faced to the 
rear, follow the principles prescribed, but by inverse 
means, at the commands : i . Front into line ; 2. March ; 

3. Guide left ; and the squadron being formed, 1. Pla- 
toons left-about wheel; 2. March; 3. Halt; 4. Right — 
Dress ; 5. Front. 

All these formations f iced to the rear, are executed in 
the same manner, when the column is inarching. 

i 

Movements by fours, the squadron being 
in column with distance. 

The squadron being in column with distance, right in 
front, to cause it to gain ground towards its left flank, 
the first captain commands : 

1. By fours left wheel. 3. Forward. 

2. March. 4. Guide right 

At the command march, the wheels are executed 
in each rank, by fours, as prescribed in the platoon. 

If, instead of moving forward, after having wheeled to 
the left by fours, the first captain wishes to halt the col- 
umn, he commands : Halt. 

To take a direction parallel to the first, and return to 
column with distance, the first captain commands : 

16 



182 THE SQUADRON. 

1. By fours right u-heel. 3. Halt. 

2. March. 

Which is executed on the same principles, but 
by inverse means. 

If, instead of baiting, the first captain wishes the 
column to inarch forward, he commands : 1. Forward ; 

2. Guide left. 

The squadron being in column with distance, right in 
front, it is caused to gain ground towards its right flank, 
by the commands: ]. By fours right wheel; 2. March; 

3. Forward; 4. Guide left ; and to resume the primitive 
direction at the commands : 1. By fours left wheel ; 2. 
March ; 3. Forward ; 4. Guide left ; (or 3. Halt.) 

The squadron being in column with distance, right in 
front; to cause it to march to the rear, the first captain 
commands : 

1. By fours left about wheel. 3. Forward. 

2. March. 4. Guide right. 

At the command march, the movement is exe- 
cuted, in each rank, by fours. 

If, instead of moving forward after the wheel to the left- 
about by fcurs, the lirst captain 'wishes to halt the col- 
umn, he commands : Halt. 

To return to the primitive direction, the first captain 
commands : 

1. By fours right-about icheel. 3. Halt. 

2. March. 

Which is executed as just prescribed, but by in- 
verse means. 



THE SQUADRON. 183 

If the first captain wishes the column to march for- 
ward, he commands : 1. Forward; 2. Guide left. 

In all the movements to the left, and to the right by 
fours, the chiefs of platoon move up abreast of the first 
rank of their platoons, on the sidfof the guide. 

The first and second captains, the file-closers, and the 
particular guides of the right and leit preserve their 
places after the wheel to the left or right by fours is com- 
pleted, facing in the new direction, 

In the wheels to the left or right-about by fours, the 
chiefs of platoon march behind the centre of their pla- 
toons, and the file-closers in front. The particular guide 
of the right is on the left of his platoon, and the partic- 
ular guide of the left in front of his. 

During the march by flank, the first captain observes 
that all the ranks march on the same line, regulate their 
movements towards the side of the guide, and preserve 
a direction parallel to that of the first platoon; that the 
troopers keep exactly at the distance of two feet from, 
and follow those who piecede them ; he observes that 
the chiefs of the three last platoons preserve their proper 
intervals on the side of the guide, so that it may not be 
necessary to correct distances when the squadron returns 
to the order in column. 

The movements by fours are executed in the same 
manner, when the column is marching. 

The squadron marching in column with distance, left 
in front, all these movements are executed on the same 
principles. 

Direct march of the squadron in line. 

The troopers, to keep aligned, should feel lightly the 
boot of the men on the side of the guide; this principle 
is borne constantly in mind, as it is the only means of 
being at ease in the ranks, and preserving the individual 
alignment. With re.-pcet to the general alignment, the 
non-commissioned officers and flank files endeavor to re- 
main aligned between each other ; consequently they 



184 THE SQUADRON. 

will not be required to keep the eyes to the front, but from 
time to time will give a glance towards the guide, in or- 
der to keep on the san.e line, avoiding to carry the bridle 
hand in. that direction, that there may be no crowding in 
the ranks. 

It has already been stated that the guide of a troop 
should never put himself in motion suddenly; the guide 
of the squadron should then commence the gait indicated, 
slowly, He should also pass gradually from a slow gait 
to a quick gait, and from a quick to a slow gait ; this 
principle is applicable also to the troopers, who should 
correct their positions with respect to the alignment by 
degrees, quickening or slackening the pace. 

The direction given to the guide having a great in- 
fluence upon the regularity of the march, it is necessary 
that the fixed point should be always chosen in a direc- 
tion exactly perpendicular to the front of the squadron; 
if the localities do not permit the particular guide to take 
intermediate points sufficiently prominent, they are sup- 
plied by the file-closers, who are placed lacing the guide, 
at 60 paces apart; they replace themselves on the pro- 
longation of the same direction, as the squadron reaches 
them. 

The first captain, after having announced the guide, 
moves to the rear, and gives him a fixed point of direc- 
tion upon which the squadron is to march, and indicates 
it also to the non-commissioned officer, who replaces the 
particular guide in the front rank, the latter serving as 
an intermediate point for the former. The fixed point 
is also made known to the second captain. 

The first captain, if he thinks proper, may charge the 
second captain with giving the direction. 

The point of direction being given, the first captain 
moves to the centre of his squadron, and faces it, to as- 
sure himself that the troopers step ofF together at the 
command of execution. He afterwards moves wherever 
he thinks his presence is most required. 



THE SQUADRON. 185 

The officers should remain constantly aligned upon 
the particular guide placed on their line, keep at one 
pace from the centre of their platoons, and march 
straight forward; for it is upon their alignment that that 
of the squadron depends. 

The particular guide, who marches abreast of the 
officers, should march always at an even gait, so as not 
to oblige the opposite flank to increase or diminish its 
pace. 

This guide, as he advances, should take new interme- 
diate points, to be able to direct himself upon the given 
points without deviating. 

The file-closer, who replaces the particular guide, 
marches so that the latter may conceal from him the 
given point of direction. He should keep the head of 
his horse constantly at one pace from the croup of the 
horse of the guide, and inform the guide if he departs 
from tke given point, as he is more especially charged 
with the direction of the march. 

During the march, the second captain should superin- 
tend the guide charged with the direction, and for this 
purpose he marches at 10 or 15 paces in rear of this 
guide. 

If, after commencing the march, he perceives that the 
troopers carry the bridle hand to the left, it is a proof, 
almost certain, that the point of direction is to the left of 
the perpendicular line; if, on the contrary, the troopers 
are obliged to open to the right, it is an evidence that the 
point of direction is to the right of the perpendicular line : 
the second captain then gives a point of direction more 
to the right or more to the lefc. 

The second captain observes that the rear-rank men 
are exactly at their proper distance, and that the file- 
closers march well aligned. 

The regularity of the march in line depending much 
upon the attention which the flank files pay to their 

lfi* 



186 THE SQUADRON. 

alignment, these files should be at first exercised sepa- 
rately. 

The squadron being in line, and correctly aligned, the 
first captain commands : 

1. Flank files forward. 3. March. 

2. Guide right. 

At the second command, the particular guide of 
the right moves up abreast of the chiefs of platoon ; 
he is immediately replaced by the file-closer of the 
first platoon. 

At the command march, the chiefs of platoon, 
the flank files, (right and left file of each platoon,) 
and the particular guides, move straight forward, 
the flank files preserving between each other the 
necessary interval, in order to receive the troopers 
of their platoons, and when they have marched 30 
paces, the first captain commands : 

1. Flank files. 2. Halt. 

At the command halt, the chiefs of platoon, the 
flank files, and the particular guides, halt. 

The first captain, after being assured that the flank files 
have marched in a direction perpendicular, and upon n 
line parallel to the front of the squadron, commands : 

1. Squadron forward. 3. MARCH. 

2. Guide right. 

At the command march, the flank files and the 
squadron move forward. 



THE SQUADRON. 187 

The flank files and the squadron having marched cor- 
rectly in the given direction, to halt them, the first cap- 
tain commands : 

1. Squadron. 2. Halt. 

At the command HALT, the squadron and the 
flank files halt. 

To cause the platoons to re-enter their places, the first 
captain, after giving notice to the flank files to stand fast, 
commands : 

1. Squadron forward. 2. March. 

And when at one pace from the flank files, he com- 
mands : 

1. Squadron. 3. Right — Dress. 

2. Halt. 4. Front. 

At the second command, the troopers halt. 

At the third command, the particular guide and 
the file-closer, who replaced him in the front rank 
of the squadron, resume their places in the line; 
the troopers return to their intervals together, and 
dress to the right. 

The squadron being aligned, the first captain 
commands, Front. 

This exercise having been executed several times at 
the walk, is repeated at the trot. 

When the flank flies have become habituated to regu- 
late their movements upon each other, the entire squad- 
ron is marched in line, first at the walk, and progress- 
ively at the trot and gallop. 



188 THE SQUADRON. 

The squadron being in line, to move forward, the first 
captain commands: 

1. Squadron forward. 3. March. 

2. Guide right. 

At the second command, the particular guide 
and file-closer of the first platoon conform to what 
is prescribed. 

At the command march, the squadron moves 
forward. 

To halt the squadron, the first captain commands: 

1. Squadron. 3. Right — Dress. 

2. Halt. 4. Front. 

At the second command, the squadron halts. 
At the third command, the squadron aligns itself. 
The squadron being aligned, the first captain 
commands. Front. 

The squadron marching at the walk, before passing to 
the trot, the first captain assures himself that the point 
of direction is good, and that the squadron marches 
with uniformity and steadiness. 

When the squadron marches steadily at the trot, it 
passes to the gallop. 

The first captain observes that the troopers keep their 
horses quiet, and do not quicken the gait more than ne- 
cessary, a common fault' in the march at the gallop. For 
this purpose, the chiefs of platoon, the guide and the 
flank files pay attention to keep their horses at an even 
and moderate gallop. 

In the marches at the trot, and particularly at the gal- 
lop, it is necessary to slacken the pace as soon as any 
disorder is discovered. 

To march at the gallop, the squadron commences at 
the walk; then passes to the trot; the same progression 



THE SQUADRON. 189 

is observed in order to halt when marching at the gal- 
lop; the squadron is then exercised in moving off from a 
halt at the trot and at the gallop, and in halting when 
marching at these gaits. 

The squadron is exercised in marching with tlie guide 
on the left, as with the guide on the right. 

Counter-march. 

The squadron being in line, to face it in the opposite 
direction, the first captain commands: 

1. Counter-march by the right flank. 

2. By file to the right. 

3. March. 

At the second command, the chiefs of platoon 
turn to the right, the chief of the first platoon 
placing himself in front of his first file ; the file- 
closers turn to the left, and pass to the left of the 
squadron ; those of the second division abreast of 
the front rank, the second captain on their left; 
those of the first division abreast of the rear rank. 

The particular guide of the right places himself 
promptly behind the particuiar guide of the left, 
facing to the rear, the croup of his horse at 6 paces 
from the rear rank. 

At the command march, the movement is exe- 
cuted as prescribed in the platoon. 

When the first file is at 2 paces from the particular 
o-uide who indicates the place where it is to form, the 
first captain commands : 

1. Front. 3. Right — Dress. 

•I. Halt. 4. Front. 



190 THE SQUADRON. 

The file-closers follow the movement, and resume 
their plaees as they arrive at them. 

After lia ving commanded march, the first captain 
moves rapidly to the flank by which the movement is 
executed, in order to direct the head of the column, and 
to re-form t ho squadron to the rear upon a line parallel 
to the one it at first occupied. 

At the commands halt arid right — dress, the 
second captain turns-about and places himself 
abreast of the rear rank to align it. 

The squadron being aligned, the first captain 
commands, front. At this command, the chiefs 
of platoon face to the front by a turn to the left. 

The counter-march should be executed generally at 
the trot. For this purpose, after the second command, 
the first captain indicates the gait. 

This movement is executed by the left flank, following 
the same principles, but by inverse means, at the com- 
mands: 1. Counter-march by the left flank ; 2. By file to 
the left ; 3. March; and 1. Front; 2. Halt; 3. Left — 
Dress; 4. Front. 



Wheelings. 



The principles prescribed for the platoon, are applica- 
ble to the squadron wheeling on a fixed or a moveable 
pivot. The execution of it becomes more difficult as the 
front is extended ; it requires on the part of officers and 
troopers, a particular and constant attention. 

During the wheel, the chiefs of platoon keep at the 
centre of their platoons, and correctly aligned upon each 
other, keeping their horses upon the arc of circle more or 
less great, in proportion to their distance from the pivot. 
The chief of the platoon on which the wheel is made. 



THE SQUADRON. 191 

regulates himself upon the chief of the platoon on the 
marching flank, observing to move progressively, as the 
latter advances in the new direction. 

The chief of the platoon on the inarching flank, de- 
scribes his circle so as neither to move from, nor ap- 
proach the other chiefs of platoon. 

The files on the flanks of platoons dress upon each 
other, all observing the progression of the marching 
flank, and keeping iipon,the arc tliey should describe. 

> 

The particular guide placed on the side of the pivot 
is the actual pivot, although he is not counted in the 
rank. 

In every kind of wheel, the marching flank of a squad- 
ron should measure with accuracy its arc of circle; if 
it is too great, the iiles are made to open and disunite, 
and the wheel becomes longer; if it is too small, the 
files are crowded, there is confusion, and the pivot is 
forced. 

To wheel on a fixed pivot. 

The squadron is exercised in wheeling on a fixed 
pivot, first at the walk, then at the trot; also at the gallop, 
when the troopers are confirmed in all the principles. 

The squadron being halted and correctly aligned, the 
first captain commands : 

1. Squadron i?i circle right wheel. 2. March. 

Which is executed on the principles prescribed 
for the platoon. 

To halt the squadron during the wheel, the first cap- 
tain commands : 

1. Squadron. 3. Left — Dress. 

2. Halt. 4. Front. 

At the first command, the troopers of the rear 



192 THE SQUADRON. 

rank straighten their horses, and resume their 
places behind their file-leaders. 

At the second command, all the troopers halt. 

At the third command, the squadron dresses to 
the left. 

The squadron being aligned, the first captain 
commands, Front. 

If. instead of halting, the first captain wishes to resume 
the direct march, he commands: 

1. Forward. 2. Guide left. 

At the first command, the troopers of the rear 
rank straighten their horses, and place themselves 
behind their file-leaders, and the whole squadron 
moves forward at the gait in which it was march- 
ing before the wheel. 

The squadron is halted, if the slightest confusion arises 
during the wheel ; the first captain explains the origin 
of the fault, and the means of repairing it. 

When the troopers begin to understand these move- 
ments, the whole circle is passed over several times 
without halting. 

If the first captain wishes to halt the squadron during 
the wheel, it is necessary, particularly in the quick gaits, 
to command squadron in sufficient time to enable the 
troopers to prepare to halt, and halt when the marching 
flank is in the act of arriving upon the new direction, so 
that the pivot may not be required to move. 

The squadron wheeling steadily at the walk, to pass to 
the trot, the first captain chooses a moment in which the 
horses are perfectly calm. After one or two turns, the 
squadron is made to resume the walk. The squadron 
wheeling well at the trot, is exercised to wheel at the 
gallop, upon the same principles. After one or two turns, 
it passes to the trot, then to the walk. 



THE SQUADRON. 193 

The troopers being habituated to these movements, 
are exercised in changing the side of the wheel, with- 
out halting. These changes oJ wheel to both hands 
are executed at the walk and at the trot, but never at the 
gallop. 

The squadron wheeling to the right, at the walk or at 
the trot, the first captain commands: 

1. Squadron in circle left wheel. 2. March 

Which is executed as prescribed for the platoon. 

The wheels at the gallop, and the changes of wheel 
without halting require much attention on the part of the 
troopers and non-commissioned officers ; the correct exe- 
cution of these movements depends upon their measur- 
ing properly the arc to be passed over, and regulating 
the rapidity of the gait. 

The squadron is afterwards exercised to wheel at the 
trot and at the gallop, commencing from a halt, and to 
halt while wheeling at these gaits. 

The squadron being halted, the first captain commands: 

C right (or left) wheel. 

1. Squadron, -j right-about (or left-about) wheel. 

{^right-half (or left-half) wheel. 

2. March. 5. Left (or right) — Dress: 

3. Squadron. 6. Front. 

4. Halt. 

Which is executed as prescribed for the platoon. 

The first captain allows sufficient time to elapse be- 
tween the first and second command, for the troopers to 
gather their horses, that they may commence the move 
together. 

These movements are executed at the different gaits: 
but they should not be repeated too frequently at the 
gallop, in order not to fatigue the horses. 



194 THE SQUADRON. 

To exercise the squadron while marchingat the wheels 
on a fixed pivot, the first captain commands : 

( right (or left) wheel. 

1. Squadron < right-about (or hft-aboui) wheel. 

{^right-half (or left-half) wheel. 

2. March. 

3. Forward. 

4. Guide left (or guide right). 

The squadron being on the march, to cause it to wheel, 
doubling the gait, the first captain gives the command 
trot or it'tllop before that of march. 

At the command march, the pivot stops short; the 
march ing flank takes the gait indicated. 

At the command forwabd, both move forward at the 
gait indicated for the 'wheel. 

To wheel on a moveable pivot. 

In the wheels on a moveable pivot, the pivot should 
describe an arc of circle of 20 pares, at the same time 
slackening the gait ; the marching flank increases its 
gait. The sixth file of the second platoon, which is the 
middle of the radius of the -wheel, preserves the gait at 
which tlie squadron was marching. The troopers placed 
between this file and the pivot diminish proportionally 
their gait; those placed between this file and tlie march- 
ing (lank augment proportionally theirs. 

The wheel on a moveable pivot is executed upon the 
guide, or upon the opposite flank. 

After a wheel on a moveable pivot, the guide remains 
where it was before the wheel, and is given a new 
point of direction. 

The squadron marching in line, to change direction 
to the right, the first captain commands : 

1. Right — Turn. 2. Forward. 



THE SQUADRON. 195 

Which is executed as prescribed for the platoon, 
the pivot describing an arc of circle of 20 paces. 

When this wheel is executed properly at the walk, the 
marching flunk taking the trot, it is repeated at the trot. 
the marching flank taking the gallop. 

To change the direction to the left, the movement is 
executed on the same principles, but by inverse means, 
at the commands: 1. Left — Turn; 2. Forward. 

Individual oblique march. 

The squadron marching in line, to cause it to gain 
ground towards its right flank, without changing the 
front of the squadron, the first captain commands: 

1. Right oblique. 2. March. 

To resume the- primitive direction, the first captain 
commands : 

Forward. 

Which is executed as prescribed in the platoon. 

The squadron marching in line, it is made to gain 
ground towards its left flank, without changing the front, 
on the sarne principles, but by inverse means, at the 
commands: 1. Left oblique; 2. March; it resumes the 
primitive direction at the command Forward. 

During the oblique march, the first carjtain observes 
that the chiefs of platoon keep on the same line, preserve 
between them the same interval, and follow parallel 
directions in order to preserve the general alignment. 

The particular guide who marches abreast of the 
chiefs of platocjn, after having executed a quarter turn 
to the right, moves straight forward. 

This movement is executed at the walk, or at the trot. 
but never at the gallop. 



196 THE SQUADRON. 



Oblique march by platoons. 

The squadron being in line, to cause it to gain ground 
towards its right flank, by the oblique march by platoons 
the first captain commands : 

J . Platoons right half-wheel. 3. Forward. 
2. March. 4. Guide right. 

At the command march, each platoon executes 
its half-wheel to the right, on a fixed pivot. 

At the third command, each platoon moves 
forward, conforming to the principles of the direct 
march. 

To cause the squadron to resume the primitive direc- 
tion, the first captain commands : 

1. Platoons left half-wheel. 3. FORWARD. 

2. March. 4. Guide right. 

Which is executed as just prescribed, but by 
inverse means. 

In the oblique march by platoons, the pivots of the 
platoons should all halt at the same instant, at the com- 
mand march, so that all the wheels may terminate at 
the same time. 

During this march, the right guide of the first platoon 
marches directly upon the point which has been indi- 
cated to him. The guides of the other platoons preserve 
their distances, take for file-leader the fourth trooper 
from the left of the platoon which precedes them, and 
keep at two paces from him. 

The first captain places himself habitually at two 
paces outside, and abreast of the front-rank of the second 
platoon. 



THE SQUADRON. 197 

The second captain behind the guide of the first pla- 
toon, in order to superintend his direction ; 

The chiefs of platoon at the centre of their platoons, 
the head of their horses on a line with the boot of the 
rear-rank man of the platoon which precedes; 

The particular guides, and the file-closers, remain at 
their places in line. 

If the squadron is marching, and this movement is 
executed, the particular guide who marches abreast of 
the chiefs of platoon, makes a half-turn to the right, and 
then marches straight forward. 

The oblique march by platoons is executed at the 
walk, at the trot, and at the gallop, the squadron being 
halted or in motion. 

The squadron being in line, it is made to gain ground 
towards its left flank on the same principles, but by in- 
verse means, at the commands: 1. Platoons left half- 
wheel; 2. Makch ; 3. Forward; 4. Chiide left, and 
resumes the primitive direction at the commands: 1. 
Platoons right half wheel ; 2. March ; 3. Forward ; 4. 
Guide right. 

Movements by fours. 

The squadron being in line, to cause it to gain ground 
towards its right flank, the first captain commands: 

1. By fours right wheel 3. Forward. 

2. March. 4. Guide left. 

Which is executed as prescribed in the platoon- 
The chiefs of platoon march on the side of the 
guide, at one pace from, and abreast of the leading 
files of their platoons. 

The particular sruide of the rir/Tit marches in 
front im the leading 



198 THE SQUADRON. 

rank of eight, the particular guide of the left be- 
hind the last rank of eight of the fourth platoon. 

The squadron having wheeled to the right by fours, 
and being in column, to change direction to the left, the 
first captain commands : 

Head of column to the left. 

The chief of the first platoon commands: 1. Left — 
Turn; 2. Forward. 

To change direction to the right, the movement is 
executed on the same principles, but by inverse means, 
at the command: Head of column to the right. 

To put the squadron again in line, the first captain 
commands : 

1. By fours left ibheel. 4. Right — Dress. 

2. March. 5. Front. 

3. Halt. 

Which is executed as prescribed in the platoon, 
the particular guides resuming their places in line. 

These movements are executed by the left, on the 
same principles, at the commands: 1. By fours left wheel ; 
2. March; 3. Forward; 4. Guide right; and 1. By 
fours right wheel; 2. March; 3. Halt; 4. Left — Dress; 
5. Fromt. 

The squadron being in line, to cause it 
to gain ground to the rear, and to 
face it ao^ain to the front. 

The squadron being in line, to face it in the opposite 
direction, the fi_ 



THE SQUADRON. 199 

1. By fours right-about wheel. 3. Forward. 

2. March. 4. Guide left. 

The chiefs of platoon, the file-closers, and the 
particular guides, wheel-about individually and 
march, the chiefs of platoon behind the centre of 
their platoons, the file-closers in front, and the par- 
ticular guides abreast of the rear rank, become the 
front. 

At the fourth command, the file-closer nearest 
the guide passages to the left, in order to place him- 
self in front of the particular guide ; the first cap- 
tain gives him a point of direction, which is also 
indicated to the particular guide, who, in this 
movement, remains on the flank of the squadron. 

The squadron is faced again to the front, by a move- 
ment similar to the one just stated. 

The wheels to the left-about by fours, are executed on the 
same principles, but by inverse means. 

These movements by fours are executed from a halt, 
and in marching at the walk and at the trot. 

The squadron marching in line, to break 
it by platoons, to the right, and to 
form it again in line. 

The squadron inarching in line, to cause it to gain 
ground towards its rifht flank, the first captain com- 
mands : 

1. Platoons right wheel. 3. FORWARD. 

2- m .-~ TT ± Guide left. 



200 THE SQUADRON. 

Which is executed as prescribed, the pivots halt- 
ing short, and the left file of each platoon stepping 
out promptly and regulating its movements upon 
that of the platoon which is in front, so as to arrive 
together in column. 

{To put the squadron again in line, the first captain 
commands : 

1. Platoons lejt wheel. 3. Forward. 

2. March. 4. Guide right. 

The marching flanks regulate their movements 
upon those of the platoon at the head of the 
column, so as to arrive together in line. 

The second captain gives a point of direction to the 
particular guide, who moves up on the line of officers, 
and indicates it also to the file-closer, -who replaces him 
on the flank of the squadron. 

These movements are executed on the same princi- 
ples, when the squadron is marching at the trot, and at 
the gallop. 

The squadron marching in line, it is made to gain 
ground towards its left flank, on the same principles, but 
by inverse means, at the commands: 1. Platoons left 
wheel; 2. March; 3. Forward; 4. Guide right; and is 
put again in line at the commands : 1. Platoons right 
wheel ; 2. March ; 3. Forward ; 4. Guide left. 

The squadron marching in line, to march 
it to the rear by wheeling the pla- 
toons about. 

The squadron niomliinw in line, cmide riffht. the first 
captain comman:; .*»— - 



THE SQUADRON. 201 

1. Platoons right-about wheel. 3. Forward. 

2. March. 4. Guide left. 

At the command march, the pivots halt short, 
and turn upon themselves; the marching flanks 
step off at the same instant, regulating themselves 
by the right during the first half of the wheel, so 
as to arrive together in column, and by the left 
during the second half, so as to arrive together in 
line. In each platoon, the rear rank and the file- 
closers carry the hand towards the marching flank, 
in order to facilitate the movement. 

At the third command, the squadron resumes 
the direct march. 

At the fourth command, the particular guide on 
the side indicated moves up on the line of officers; 
he is immediately replaced, and a point of direc- 
tion given. 

If, after wheeling about, the first captain wishes to 
halt the squadron, instead of commanding FORWARD, he 
commands : 3. Halt ; 4. Left — Dress ; 5- Front. 

This movement is executed by the left, on the same 
principles, but by inverse means, at the commands : 1. 
Platoons left-abowt wheel; 2. March; 3. Forward; 4. 
Guide right. 

In these movements, the particular guide of the 
right turns to the right, moves straight forward the 
extent of the front of a platoon, and turns again 
to the right, in order to place himself on the left of 
the squadron. The particular guide of the left 
executes the same movement, to place himself on 
the right of the squadron. 



202 THE SQUADRON. 

These movements are executed from a halt, and in 
marching at the trot and at the gallop. 

The squadron marching in line, to break 
it to the front by platoons, and to re- 
form it. 

The first captain commands : 

1. By platoons to the front. 3. Guide left 

2. March. 

Which is executed as prescribed in breaking 
from a halt, except that the chief of the first pla- 
toon, continuing to march on, does not command 
platoon forward, nor march, but repeats the indi- 
cation of the guide. 

This movement is executed in the same manner, at 
the trot and at the gallop. 

The squadron marching in column with distance, 
right in front, to form it at the> same gait, the first cap- 
tain commands : 

1. Form squadron. 2. March. 3. Guide right. 

The squadron marching at the trot, this movement is 
executed on the same principles, except that the chief 
of the first platoon commands: 1. Walk; 2. March, 
the right particular guide, at the command guide right, 
moves up on the line of officers, and each of the other 
chiefs of platoon commands : 1. Walk; 2. March; on 
arriving in line. The movement is executed in the 
same manner when the column is at the gallop, each 
platoon passing successively to the trot. 

The squadron marching in line, it is broken by the 



THE SQUADRON. 203 

left, on the same principles, but by inverse means, at 
the commands : 1. By the left — by platoons to the front;* 

2. March; 3. Guide right. It is re-formed at the same 
gait at the commands : 1. Form squadron; 2. March; 

3. Guide left. 

The squadron marching in line, to break 
it to the front by platoons, doubling 
the gait, and to re-form it. 

The first captain commands : 

1. By platoons to the front — trot. 3. Guide left. 

2. March. 

At the first command, the chief of the first pla- 
toon commands, Trot; and those of the three 
other platoons command, Platoon right half-wheel — 
trot. 

At the command MARCH, repeated by these offi- 
cers, the movement is executed as prescribed in 
breaking from the line halted. 

Tlie squadron marching in line at the trot, the move- 
ment is executed at the gallop on the same principles. 

The squadron marching in column with distance, 
right in front, to form it, doubling the gait, the first cap- 
tain commands : 

1. Form squadron — trot. 3. Guide right. 

2. March. 

At the first command, the chiefs of the three 

*It is better to command. 1. " By platoons from the 
left; 2, March; 3. Guide right." 



204 THE SQUADRON. 

last platoons command, Platoon left half-wheel — 
trot. 

At the command March, repeated by the chiefs 
of the three last platoons, the first platoon continues 
to march straight forward at the walk, and its 
chief repeats the indication of the guide. 

The three other platoons execute their half-wheel 
to the left at the trot, on a fixed pivot. 

The half-wheels being nearly terminated, the 
chiefs of these platoons command, 1. Forward; 
2. Guide right; they move straight forward, and 
as soon as the right file of their platoon is in the 
direction of the left file of the platoon which pre- 
cedes, they command, 1. Right half-wheel ; 2. 
March; d. Forward; and then, walk; in suffi- 
cient time to command march, when their platoon 
arrives in line ; then the troopers resume the walk, 
and align themselves in marching. 

Bach platoon, after its half-wheel to the left, 
move straight, forward on the point where it is to 
turn, and without obliquing towards the platoons 
which precede it. 

The second captain gives a point of direction to the 
particular guide of the right, who moves upon the line 
of officers at the command, guide right. 

The column being at the trot, this movement is 
executed at the commands, 1. Form squadron — gallop; 
2. March; 3. Guide right ; the first platoon continues to 
march at the trot, and the three last platoons take the 
gallop, and resume the trot when they arrive on the line 
of the first. 

When the column is at the gallop, the squadron is 
formed at the same gait as prescribed, each platoon 
passing successively to the trot. 



THE SQUADRON. 205 

The squadron marching in line, it is broken by the left 
by platoons, doubling the gait, on the principles pre- 
scribed, but by inverse means, at the commands,* 1. By 
theleft- — by platoons tu the front — trot (or gallop); 2. March; 

3. Guide right.. The squadron is re-formed, doubling' the 
gait, at the commands, 1. Form squadron — trot (or gal- 
lop); 2. Mabch ; 3. Guide left. 

Passage of obstacles. 

The squadron marching in line, to execute the pas 
sage of obstacles, the first captain commands : 

1. Obstacle. 2. First platoon. 3. Halt. 

At the command halt, repeated by the chief 
of the first platoon, this platoon halts, and its 
chief immediately commands, 1. Left oblique — trot; 
2. March ; and this platoon doubles upon the 
second. 

When the platoon which has obliqued is in rear 
of the one upon which it has doubled, its chief 
commands, 1. Forward; 2. Guide right; 3. Walk; 

4. March. 

To cause the platoon which has obliqued to return to 
its place, the first captain commands : 

1. First platoon. 2. Into Line. 

At the command INTO LINE, the chief of the pla- 
toon commands, 1. Right oblique. — trot; 2. March; 
when opposite the ground the platoon is to occupy, 
he commands, 1. Forward; 2. Guide left; 3. 
Walk; and when the platoon is in line, 4. March. 

* 1. By platoons from the left — Trot (or gallop; 2. 
March ; 3. Guide right. 



206 THE SQUADRON. 

The chief of the platoon commands Forward, a 
little before its left file has passed beyond the right 
file of the platoon on which it is to form. 

If the guide is to the right, as soon as the first platoon 
has re-entered upon the line, the first captain indicates 
the new guide ; he does the same as soon as the fourth 
platoon is m line, if the guide is to the left. 

The second platoon executes the same movement, in 
obliquing to the right behind the first platoon ; the third 
in obliquing to the left behind the fourth, and the f mrth 
in obliquing to the right behind the third ; each platoon 
should always double upon that with which it forms the 
division. . 

The chiefs of platoon give the prescribed commands 
rapidly, and cause the degree of obliquity to be a lit- 
tle increased, that the movement may be more promptly 
executed, and to enable the platoons to take their dis- 
tances. 

All these movements are axecuted first at the tvalk. 
When the squadron is at the trot, the movement is exe- 
cuted at the gallop. 

The squadron marching in line, to execute the passage 
of obstacle, upon the head of each platoon, the first cap- 
tain commands : 

1. Iii each platoon — by fours (or by twos) — trot. 

2. March. 

3. Guide right. 

At the first command, the chiefs of platoon com- 
mand : By fours (or by twos) — trot. 

At the command march, repeated by these offi- 
cers, each platoon breaks by fours as prescribed, the 
chiefs of platoon march at the head of their platoons; 
the particular guide of the right, who marches on 
the line of officers, places himself on the right of 
the chief of the first platoon ; the particular guide 



THE SQUADRON. 207 

of the left, in rear of the fourth platoon, and the 
file-closers upon the right flank of their platoons. 

Each platoon being thus broken in column, should 
preserve a direction parallel to that of the one 
which is the guide, keeping on the same line, and 
always at the distance of its front, to be able at any 
moment to re-form in line. 

If the ground requires a platoon to deviate from 
its direction, it should return to it as soon as possi- 
ble, and recover its proper distance with respect to 
the side towards the guide. 

In marching thus, the first cnptain may cause the 
squadron to break by twos and by file, observing to form 
twos and fours as soon as the ground will permit. 

These movements are executed when the squadron is 
marching at the trot or at the gallop. 

This formation being only momentary, the guide re- 
mains on the side it was during the march in line, that 
the base of the alignment may not be changed. 

'i'o re-form the squadron, each platoon having broken 
by fours or by twos at the trot, right in front, the first 
captain commands: 

1. Form platoons. 3. Guide right. 

2. March. 

At the first command, the chiefs of platoon com- 
mand : Form platoon. 

At the command march, repeated by these offi- 
cers, each platoon forms as prescribed in the platoon 
drill. 

If the ground does not permit all the platoons to 
form at once, the one before which the obstacle is 
presented, forms in rear of the other platoon of 



208 THE SQUADRON. 

its division, and retakes its place in line as soon as 
practicable. 

These movements are executed by the left, on the same 
principles, bin by inverse means, at the commands : 1. In 
each platoon — by fours (or by twos) — from the left — trot ; 
2. March; 3. Guide left ; and to re-form the squadron, 1. 
Form platoons ; 2. March ; 3. Guide left. 



CHARGE.— RALLYING— SKIRMISHING. 



Charge. 

In the charge, as in every other direct march, it is im- 
portant to keep the horses straight. As soon as any con- 
fusion is observed, it is necessary to halt and re- com- 
mence the movement. 

The squadron is exercised at the charge : 1. Inline; 
2. In column ; 3. Jls foragers. 

The charge in line is executed by the squadron when in 
line; it should be as short as possible, so as to arrive in 
good order, and without fatiguing the horses. 

The charge in column is executed by the squadron bro- 
ken in column with distance. 

To execute the charge as foragers, all the troopers of 
the squadron disperse, and direct themselves each upon 
the point he wishes to attack, observing not to lose sight 
of their officers, who charge with them. 

The line upon which the squadron should re-form af- 
ter the charge is marked out, as prescribed, (see Platoon 
Drill,) by two non-commissioned officers, who are file- 
closers, and who are placed 240 paces in front, facing, 
and at a distance from each other equal to the front of 
the squadron. 



THE SQUADRON. 



209 



Non-commissioned officers are also placed opposite the 
right flank at the different points where the changes of 
gait should take place. 

If the guide is on the left, they are placed opposite the 
left flank. * 

The squadron being in line, the first captain orders 
the sabres to be drawn, and the platoons to charge one 
after another, commencing by the right. 

For this purpose, the first captain advances 240 paces 
to the front, taking a trumpeter with him; and when he 
v;ishes the movement to commence, he causes a signal 
to be given. 

The first platoon then moves forward at the com- 
mands of its chief. It passes successively from the walk 
to the trot, from the trot to the gallop, and from the gal- 
lop to the charge. 

The three other platoons break in their turn, when the 
preceding one has halted. 

To execute the charge by the entire squadron, the first 
captain places himself in front of the centre of his squad ■ 
ron, and commands : 



1. Squadron forward. 

2. Guide right (or left. 



3. March. 



When the squadron has marched forward 20 paces, 
he commands : 

1. Trot. 2. March. 

At 60 paces farther, he commands : 

1. Gallop. 2. March. 

At 80 paces farther, he commands : 
Charge. 

At this command, repeated by the chiefs of pla- 
toon, the troopers take the position of raise sabre. 



210 THE SQUADRON. 

When the squadron, after having passed over 60 paces 
at the charge, is 20 paces from the non-commissioned 
officers who mark the line, the first captain commands: 

1. Attention. -• 4. Right — Dress. 

2. Squadron. 5. Front. 

3. Halt. 

At the command attention, repeated by the chiefs 
of platoon, the troopers prepare to slacken the pace, 
and carry the sabre to the shoulder. 

At the command squadron, the chiefs of platoon 
eomuiand, Platoon, and the troopers pass to the 
trot. 

At the eommand halt, repeated by the chiefs 
■of platoon, the troopers halt. 

At the command right — dress, they align them- 
selves to the right. 

The squadron being aligned, the first captain 
commands, Front. 

To assure himself that the principles prescribed are 
exactly followed, the first captain sometimes places him- 
self in front of the squadron, facing it, and at the dis- 
tance that will enable him to remark better the faults. 
In this case he is replaced on the line of officers by the 
second captain, who gives the commands. 

When the squadron executes the charge correctly, in- 
stead of halting when the charge is finished, the first 
captain commands : 

1. Attention. 2. Trot. 3. MARCH. 

At these commands, repeated by the chiefs of platoon, 
the squadron passes to the trot, and at 20 paces beyond 
the line marked -"* ,, = <">mmands : 



THE SQUADRON. 211 

1, First (or fourth) platoon — as foragers. 

2. March. 

At these commands, repeated by the chief of the pla- 
toon designated, the platoon moves forward at the gal- 
lop, and disperses as foragers. A trumpeter follows the 
chief of the platoon. 

The squadron follows this platoon at the trot; when it 
has passed over 150 paces, the first captain causes the 
rally to be sounded. At this signal, repeated by the 
trumpeter of the platoon dispersed as foragers, the latter 
rally upon the squadron, as prescribed in the Platoon 
Drill; and when three-fourths of the platoon have ral- 
lied and are in line, the first captain commands : 

1. Attention, 3. MARCH. 

2. Gallop. 4. Charge. 

The squadron executes again the charge in line ; the 
troopers, who have not been able to rally, charge upon 
the flanks of the squadron. 

To exercise the troopers in rallying upon any point 
whatever, the first captain, during the march at the trot, 
causes the squadron to gain ground towards one of its 
flanks, by executing a half-wheel to the right or to the left, 
or by breaking by platoons to the right or to the left, and re- 
forming immediately in a new direction. 

The squadron marching in column with distance, at 
the trot, the first captain commands : 

1. To the charge. 2. March. 

At the first command, the chief of the first pla- 
toon commands, Gallop. 

At the command march, repeated by the chief 
of the first platoon, this platoon commences the 
gallop. 



212 THJE SQUADRON. 

The other platoons follow at the trot, each taking 
the gallop, when the platoon which precedes is at 
the distance of 50 paces. 

When the first platoon has passed over 80 paces 
at the gallop, its chief commands, Charge. 

At this command, the platoon executes the 
charge ; and when it has passed over 60 paces, its 
chief eauses it to pass to the trot by the commands : 
1, Attention; 2. Trot; 3. March. 

The other platoons pay attention to the movements of 
the platoon which precedes them, so as to change the 
gait in time, and to resume their ordinary distance ; the 
first captain halts the column when he thinks proper. 

These charges are executed, each platoon taking in its 
turn the head of the column. 

The squadron marching in column with distance, at 
the trot, the first captain commands : 

1. First Platoon — as foragers. 

2. March. 

At the command march, repeated by the chief 
of the first platoon, this platoon disperses as foragers. 
The squadron continues to march at the trot, and 
when it has passed over 100 or 150 paces, the first 
captain causes the rally to be sounded. 

At this signal, the platoon rallies and re-forms at 
the rear of the column, or at its place in line, if the 
squadron has been put in line. 

Rallying. 

To give the troopers the habit of rallying promptly, 

after having b^» .«-.. =..,. ' *"''"■* "°ptain 



THE SQUADRON. 213 

places the squadron at the extremity of the ground ; and 
after giving notice to the files on the flank of platoons, 
the file-closers and the trumpeters, to remain upon the 
line with him, he causes the disperse to be sounded. At 
this signal, the troopers disperse and charge as foragers ; 
when they are at the distance of 150 or 200 paces, the 
first captain causes the rally to be sounded. 

The first captain observes that the troopers disperse 
without confusion ; that, in rallying, they direct them- 
selves to the right and to the left, outside of the flanks 
of the squadron, in order to unmask promptly the front 
of the squadron, and to re-form, passing by the rear. 

When the troopers rally without confusion, this move- 
ment is repeated without requiring the flank files, &c, 
to remain on the line of the squadron. 

At the signal to disperse, the squadron disperses in 
every direction to the front. 

When the squadron is dispersed, the first captain 
causes the rally to be sounded. 

At this signal, the officers, the non-commissioned offi- 
cers, and the troopers, rejoin rapidly ; the officers align 
themselves promptly upon the first captain, and the non- 
commissioned officers mark immediately the flanks of 
the platoons. 

As soon as the first captain has formed two-thirds of 
the squadron, he moves forward, charges again, and 
halts. 

When the squadron is dispersed as foragers, the first 
captain should sometimes establish himself to the right 
or to the left of the direction followed by the troopers, 
and then order the rally to be sounded, to accustom them 
to rally upon any point he may select. 

These movements are first executed at the trot, and 
then at the gallop. 

Light cavalry should be particularly exercised in 
charging as foragers and in rallying. 



214 THE SQUADRON. 

Skirmishing. 

When tlie squadron is in sight of the skirmishers, the 
first captain orders no signal except the rally. The chief 
of the skirmishers observes the movements of the squad- 
ron he covers, and conforms to them as soon as practica- 
ble, requiring his trumpeter to sound the necessary signals. 
When the squadron changes front, the chief of the 
skirmishers moves'upon the new front, unless the first 
captain gives orders to the contrary. 

If the squadron is out of sight of the skirmishers, the 
first captain causes the signals which correspond to the 
movements he executes to be sounded, in order to give 
notice to the chief of the skirmishers, who conforms to 
them as soon as practicable. 

The trumpeter who follows the chief of the skirmish- 
ers should give the signals only upon the order of that 
officer. The skirmishers should execute their move- 
ments only by the signals of the trumpeter who accom- 
panies the officer who commands them. 

With respect to the signals, as well as to commence 
and to cease firing, the troopers conform to what is pre- 
scribed in the Platoon. 

When several platoons act as skirmishers, the firing 
is commenced by the right of each platoon. 

When a squadron is acting as skirmishers, the first 
captain is always followed by a trumpeter. The others 
are placed several steps in rear of the line of skirmishers, 
at equal distances from the centre to the extremities, in 
order to repeat as soon as possible the signals given by 
the trumpeter of the first captain. 

The squadron being in line, the first captain com- 
mands : 

1. First (or fourth") platoon — as skirmishers. 

2. March. 

At the first command, the chief of the first pla- 
toons orders the sabres to be returned, the holsters 



THE SQUADRON. 215 

to be uncovered, and the arms to be loaded ; he 
then commands: 1. Platoon forward; 2. Guide 
right; 3. Trot. 

At the command march, repeated by the chief 
of the platoon, this platoon moves forward. After 
marching 100 paces to the front, the chief of the 
platoon commands : 1. Six files from, right (or from 
left) — as skirmishers ; 2. March ; 3. Guide right 
(or guide left) ; which is executed as prescribed in 
the Platoon. 

When the first captain wishes the skirmishers to r«-. 
enter the squadron, lie causes the rally to be sounded. 

At this signal, the chief of the skirmishers rallies his 
platoon, as prescribed in the Platoon, and then rejoins 
the squadron at the gallop, directing himself upon one 
of the flanks to resume his place in line. 

When the first captain wishes to relieve a platoon 
which is skirmishing, the chief of the new platoon, after 
causing the arms to be loaded, moves forward upon the 
leserve of the platoon which is acting as skirmishers. 
On coming up abreast of it, he orders out 6 files as skir- 
mishers, as lias been explained ; the remaining 6 files 
halt and draw sabres. 

As soon as the new skirmishers have passed 5 paces 
beyond those they are to relieve, the latter turn-about and 
rally upon their reserve. The platoon having rallied, is 
conducted back to the squadron at the trot. 

When the entire squadron is to act as skirmishers, the 
first captain orders the sabres to be returned, the holsters 
to be uncovered, and the arms to be loaded ; he then 
commands : 

1. Squadron forward. 3. Trot. 

2. Guide right. 4. March. 



216 THE SQUADRON. 

Having arrived at the point where the reserve is to be 
established, about 100 paces from the front of the body 
to be covered, and more if it has been commanded, the 
first captain commands : 

1. Three first (or three last) platoons as skir- 
mishers. 

2. March. 

At the command march, the chief of the pla- 
toon which is to support the skirmishers, halts that 
platoon, and orders the sabres to be drawn. The 
chiefs of the three other platoons continue to march 
on, each directing himself by the shortest route, 100 
paces to the front towards the part of the line his 
platoon is to occupy, and having reached it, he dis- 
perses his platoon as skirmishers. 

The right pi > toon covers the right of the regi- 
ment, and extends 30 or 40 paces beyond it; an- 
other platoon covers the centre, and the left platoon 
covers the left, extend ng also 30 or 40 paces 
beyond. The chiefs of these platoons remain 25 
paces in rear of the line of skirmishers, and pass 
over the extent occupied by the troopers of their 
platoons. 

The reserve remains in rear of the centre of the 
line of skirmishers. If the first captain thinks 
proper to divide it, each fraction moves upon the 
point designated, the first commanded by the officer, 
the other by the non-commissioned officer who was 
the file-closer. 

The squadron having moved forward to cover the 
regiment, if the first captain wishes only one division to 
act as skirmishers, he commands: 1. First (or second) 



THE SQUADRON. 217 

division — as skirmishers ; 4. March; which is executed 
as prescribed above. 

The division which serves as a reserve remains as a 
single troop, or, if the first captain thinks proper, it is 
divided into two parts. 

The first captain, followed by the first sergeant, keeps 
habitually half way between the reserve and the skir- 
mishers, to direct the movements. 

The second captain, followed by the second sergeant, 
passes the line, and gives notice to the first captain of 
every thing that it is important for him to know. 

If the first captain wishes to rally the skirmishers 
upon themselves, he causes the rally of skirmishers, No. 
6, to be sounded. 

At this signal, each platoon rallies as rapidly as 
possible upon its chief. 

If the first captain then wishes to rally the squad- 
ron, he moves upon the point where he intends it 
shall form, and causes the rally to be sounded when 
three-fourths of each platoon has rallied. 

At this new signal, the reserve and each platoon 
of skirmishers move at a gallop upon the point 
where the captain commanding is placed. The 
troopers, who did not rejoin their platoon when it 
rallied upon itself, direct themselves towards the 
squadron. 

The squadron being dispersed as skirmishers, if the 
first captain wishes it to rally immediately, he orders the 
rally to be sounded; at this signal, the officers, the skir- 
mishers and the reserve rally upon the point occupied 
by the first captain. 

The troopers being dispersed as skirmishers, if the first 
captain wishes them to charge as foragers, he orders them 
to cease firing, and causes the disperse to be sounded. 



218 THE SQUADRON. 

At this signal, the chiefs of platoon move for- 
ward in line, and the skirmishers draw sabres; they 
charge immediately. The reserve follows at the 
trot or at the gallop, as may be necessary. 

After the charge, the first captain orders the rally to 
be sounded, when the 1 troopers rally in rearof the reserve. 

The skirmishers being rallied by platoons, as pre- 
scribed above, if the first captain wishes to charge, he 
orders the charge to be sounded. 

At this signal, each chief of platoon conducts 
his platoon to the charge in good order; the re- 
serve supports the movement at the trot or at the 
gallop. 

The first captain places himself so as to be able to 
direct the general movement. 

The second captain charges with the platoon nearest 
to him. 

The platoons rally behind the reserve; the first captain 
moves upon that point at the same time that he orders 
the rally to be sounded. 

If, in a squadron of dragoons, one platoon dismounts 
to fight on foot, the first captain commands : 

1. First (or fourth) platoon — prepare to fight on foot. 

2. March. 

At the first command, the chief of the platoon orders 
the sabres to be returned. 

At the command march, repeated by the chief of the 
platoon, this platoon moves forward, having marched 12 
paces, the chief of the platoon halts it and commands : 

Prepare to fight— oil foot. 

Which is executed as prescribed for dragoons, in the 
platoon drill. 



THE SQUADRON. 219 

The platoon being formed on foot, it is conducted to 
the point it is to defend, and is exercised as light in- 
fantry. 

The horses without riders will be led in rear of the 
centre of the squadron. 

When the first captain wishes the dismounted platoon 
to remount, he orders the rally to be sounded. At this 
signal, the chief of this platoon places himself at the 
point on which he wishes the dragoons to rally, if dis- 
persed as skirmishers, and the rally is executed as pre- 
scribed for the dragoons. 

The platoon being formed, is conducted by the rear 
rank to within 12 paces of the ground occupied by their 
horses, and the chief of this platoon gives the command, 
dragoons mount, which having been executed, it resumes 
its place in the squadron. 

If the first captain wishes a division to dismount, he 
commands: 

First (or second) division — prepare to fight on foot. 

Which is executed on the principles prescribed for 
the platoon. The 2d lieutenant commanding the second 
platoon of the division, remains with the horses of the 
dismounted men; the 1st lieutenant commands the dis- 
mounted dragoons; he forms two platoons which are 
exercised on the principles prescribed in the drill of the 
platoon. 

If the -whole squadron dismounts to fight on foot, the 
first captain commands: 

Prepare to fight — on foot. 

Which is executed by the whole squadron, as pre- 
scribed for the platoon. 

The second captain and an officer remain with the 
horses of the dismounted men: the first captain moves 
his dismounted squadron upon the point it is to defend, 
and conforms to what is prescribed in the light infantry 
tactics. 

The squadron remounts by the commands and on the 
principles prescribed for the platoon. 



220 THE SQUADRON. 

The right file of the squadron remains mounted. 

The particular guides dismount, and also the two 
trumpeters who follow the first captain and the lieuten- 
ant commanding the skirmishers. 

The file-closers who remain mounted take their places 
in front of their platoons. 

The horses of the officers who dismount are held as 
follows : 

Those of the first captain and the lieutenant com- 
manding the first platoon, by a trumpeter who remains 
mounted on the right of the squadron. He holds the 
captain's horse on his right and the other on his left. 

The trooper on the right of the. front rank holds the 
horses ot the two other commandants of platoons. 

The trooper on the right of the rear rank, holds with 
his right hand the horse of the particular guide of the 
right, and the horses of the two trumpeters are linked 
on his left. 

The trooper on the left of the front rank holds the 
horse of the particular guide of the left with his left 
hand. 

The trooper on the left of the rear rank holds the horse 
of the file-closer who dismounts. 



THE COLUMN BY DIVISIONS. 

~* he squadron being in line, if the first captain wish?-, 
to form it in column by divisions, he commands : 

1. Divisions right (or left) wheel. 

2. March. 

3. Halt (or Forward.) 

4. Guide left (or right.) 

Which is executed as prescribed, in order to break the 
squadron by platoons to the right or to the left, halting 
after the wheels or without halting. 



THE SQUADRON. 221 

The same movements are executed, when the squad- 
ron is marching in line. 

The principles prescribed for the column by platoons, 
are applicable to the march in column by divisions, the 
different modes of passing from line into column, and 
from column into line. 

To gain ground towards its flanks or to the rear, em- 
ploy the means prescribed for the column by platoons. 
The wheels-about can be also executed by divisions. 

The distance measured from the croup of the horses of 
the rear rank of one division, to the head of the horses 
of the division which follows, should be equal to the 
front of the division, minus the depth of the two ranks. 

In the wheels on a moveable pivot by divisions, the 
ninth file of the platoon upon which the wheel is exe- 
cuted, is the middle point of the radius of the wheel. 
Thepivot describes an arc of circle of ten paces. 

The squaJron marching in column by platoons, right 
in front, to form the divisions at the same gait, the first 
captain commands : 

1. Form divisions. 2. March. 

At the first command, the chiefs of the second 
and fourth platoons command, Platoon left half- 
wheel. 

At the command march, repeated by the same 
officers, the second and fourth platoons execute a 
half wheel to the left on a, fixed pivot. The first 
and third platoons continue to march straight for- 
ward, and after having marched 30 paces, their 
chiefs command : Halt. 

The chiefs of the second and fourth platoons, 
when the half-wheel to the left is nearly terminated, 
command, 1. Forward; 2. Guide right ; they 
move straight forward, and as soon as the right 
file of their runfnnn nrpimo :« *i>- direction of the 



222 THE SQUADRON. 

left file of the platoon which precedes, they com- 
mand, 1. Right half-wheel; 2. March; 3. For- 
ward; they move forward, and command halt, 
on arriving abreast of the platoon belonging to the 
same division. 

The lieutenants commanding divisions then com- 
mand, Right — Dress, move to the left of the divi- 
sion, rectify the alignment, command, front, and 
return to the centre of their platoons. 

When the column is at the tro f , to form divisions at 
the same gait, conform to the principles just prescribed, 
except that the chiefs of the first and third platoons, at 
the first command, command Walk; at the command 
march, repeated by them, their platoons pass to the walk, 
continue to march on, and that the chiefs of the second 
and fourth platoons, which execute their movements iu 
marching at the trot, command Walk, in sufficient time 
to command march when their platoons come up abreast 
of those on which they are to form. 

The first captain then commands : Guide left. 

When the column is at the gallop, to form the divi- 
sions at the same gait, conform to the same principles, 
the first and third platoons passing to the Irot&t the com- 
mand march, and the second and fourth platoons taking 
the trot, as they come up. 

The column having the left in front, conform to the 
same principles, the first and third platoons executing in 
an inverse sense what has been prescribed for the second 
and fourth ; and the latter conforming to what has been 
prescribed for the first and third. 

The squadron marching in column by divisions, right 
in front, to break the divisions by platoons, the first cap- 
tain commands : 

1. By platoons. 3. Guide left. 

2. Mapptt 



THE SQUADRON. 223 

At the first command, the chiefs of the second 
and fourth platoons command, Platoons right-half 
wheel. 

At the command march, repeated by the same 
officers, the second and fourth platoons execute a 
half wheel to the right on a fixed pivot, and the first 
and third platoons continue to march on. 

The chiefs of the second and fourth platoons, the 
half wheel to the right being nearly terminated, 
command, 1. Forward; 2. Guide left; they 
move straight forward, and as soon as the left file 
of their platoon arrives in the direction of the left 
file of the platoon which precedes, they command, 
1. Left half-wheel; 2. March; 3. Forward; 
and move forward taking their proper distances. 

The divisions ;ire broken by platoons, on the same 
principles, in marching at the trot or at the gallop. 

The column having the left in front, the first captain 
commands. 1. By the left — by platoons;* 2. March; 
3. Guide right; which is executed on the same princi- 
ples, the first and third platoons executing in an inverse 
sense what is prescribed for the second and fourth, and 
the latter conforming to what is prescribed for the first 
and third platoons. 

The squadron marching in column by platoons, right 
in front, to form divisions, doubling the gait, the first 
captain commands : 

1. Form divisions — trot. 3. Guide left. 

2. March. 

Which is executed as just prescribed, the first 
*It is better to command — u .Bv vlatoons from the left." 



224 THE SQUADRON. 

and third platoons continuing to march at the same 
gait, and the chiefs of the second and fourth pla- 
toons commanding: 1. Platoon left half wheel — 
trot; 2. March; 3. Forward; 4. Guide right ; 
and 1. Right lialf-ivheel ; 2. March; 3. For- 
ward ; 4. Walk. When they arrive abreast of 
the platoon on which they form, they command : 
5. March. 

The column marching at the trot, the divisions are 
formed at the gallop, on the same principles, at the com- 
mands : 1. Form divisions — gallop; 2. March; 3. Guide 
left. 

When the column is at the gallop, the divisions are 
formed at the same gait, the first and third platoons taking 
the trot at the command march. 

The squadron marching in column by divisions, right 
in front, to break the divisions by platoons, doubling the 
gait, the first captain commands : 

1. By platoons — trot. 3. Guide right. 

2. March. 

At the first command, the chiefs of the first and 
third platoons command, Trot; those of the sec- 
ond and fourth platoons command, Platoons right 
half- wheel — trot. 

At the command march, repeated by the chiefs 
of platoon, the first and third platoons move for- 
ward at the trot. The second and fourth execute 
their half-tvheel to the right on a fixed pivot, at the 
trot, and the movement is executed as prescribed 
above. 

The column being at the trot, to break by platoons at 
the gallop -'-- -- the com- 



THE SQUADRON. 225 

commands: 1. By platoons — gallop ; 2. March ; 3. Guide 
left. 

When the column marches at the gallop, the divisions 
are broken at the same gait. 

The squadron being in line, to break it by divisions 
by the right to march to the left, the first captain com- 
mands : 

1. Divisions break by the right — to march to the 
left. 

2. March. 

Which is executed as prescribed for the column 
by platoons, each first lieutenant commanding suc- 
cessively, march, when the division which pre- 
cedes arrives opposite the centre of the second 
platoon of his own division. 

The same principles are observed, to break by the left 
to march to the right. 

To break the squadron by divisions to the rear by the 
right, lo march to the left, the first captain commands : 

1. Divisions break by the right to the rear — to 
march to the left. 

2. March. 

Which is executed as prescribed for the column 
by platoons, each first lieutenant commanding; suc- 
cessively, march, when the chief of the division 
which was on his right has commanded forward, 
after having executed his wheel to the right-about. 

To break to the rear by the left to march to the right, 
follow the same principles. 



226 THE SQUADRON. 



THE SQUADRON OF SIXTY-FOUR FILES. 

The principles established for the squadron of forty- 
eight files are applicable to the squadron of sixty-four 
file?, with the following modifications: 

The platoons being of sixteen files, the distance mea- 
sured from the croup of the rear rank of one platoon to 
the head of the horses of the front rank of the platoon 
which follows, is ten paces. 

Tor the changes of direction, conform to what is pre- 
scribed 'when the platoons are composed of twelve files, 
except that the arc described by the pivot is of six paces. 

The squadron marching in column by platoons, it is 
broken by sections, on the principles indicated to break 
by fours, at the commands : 1. By sections; 2. March. 
The same movements are executed doubling the gait. 
The sections are commanded as prescribed.* 

In the movement to break by platoons by the right to 
march to the left, each chief of platoon gives the com- 
mand MARCH, when the platoon which precedes, after 
having turned to the left, arrives opposite the centre of 
his own platoon. 

In the movement to break by platoons to the rear by the 
right to march to the left, each chief of platoon gives the 
command MARCH, when the chief of the platoon which 
precedes, after having executed his wheel to the right- 
about, commands : Forward. 

In the wheels of a division on a moveable pivot, the 
arc of circle is of 12 paces; the twelfth file from the pivot 
should preserve the gait at which the division was 
marching ; for the squadron, the arc of circle described by 
the pivot being of 24 paces, the eighth file of the second 
platoon from the side of the pivot should preserve the 
gait at which the squadron was marching. 

The squadron being in line, to break by section, con- 

* See paragraph (in first part of platoon drill) on col- 
umn of sections. 



I THE SQUADRON. 227 

form to the principles prescribed in order to break by- 
platoons, at the commands: 1. Sections right wheel; 2. 
March; 3. Halt (or Forward); 4. Guide left; or 1. 
Sections right wheel — head of column to the right (or to the 
left.) 

In the column by sections, the distance from one sec- 
tion to another is two paces* 

The elianges of direction of the column by sections are 
executed on the principles prescribed for the column 
marching by fours, the pivot describing an arc of cir- 
cle of 5 paces, without slackening the gait. 

For the oblique march, conform to what is prescribed 
for the column by fours. 

The sections are broken by fours on the principles to 
break the platoons by fours, at the same gait and doubling 
the gait. 

The squadron marching in column by sections, it is 
formed to the front, or on right into line, on the principles 
prescribed for these formations, when marching in col- 
■u/mn by fours. 

The squadron marching in column by sections, it is 
formed at the same gair, or doubling the gait, by the 
means prescribed for the formation, front into line when 
marching by fours. 

The squadron marching in column by sections, it is 
formed left into line, on the principles prescribed for the 
squadron marching in column by platoons. 

The squadron is broken by sections for the formation 
of close column and for the passage of lines. 

* 2 yards. 



CAVALRY TACTICS. 



FJ^RT ^OXJJRTKC. 



J5mgk $lattk Jirrmafas. 

The principles which govern the movements of 
mounted forces formed in two ranks are equally 
applicable when there is but one rank. 

The words of command remain the same, except 
that those which can only be executed by two rank, 
are omitted. 

At the signal, "boot and saddle," the horses are 
saddled, bridled, and prepared to be led out to the 
parade or drill ground. 

The call " to horse " being sounded, the 1st 
Sergeant orders the troopers to "lead out." 

When the last call only is sounded, (as is pi-oper 
in cases of sudden alarm,) the troopei-s saddle, bri- 
dle and mount with the utmost celerity; and form 
mounted at the place of assembly, which must al- 
ways be previously designated. 

The platoon is composed of 16 troopers as a max- 
imum, 12 as a minimum. 



SINGLE RANK FORMATIONS. 229 

It is preferable to divide into platoons of 16, al- 
though this may require the number of platoons to 
be diminished ; platoons of 16 are divisable into 
sections, but not those of 12. 

Two, three, or four platoons united may practice 
the squadron exercises. 

A company divided into 4 platoons of 16 men 
will require 1 Captain, 2 Lieutenants, 4 Sergeants, 
4 Corporals, and 60 Privates. When the latter fall 
below 60 in number, they may be divided into 3 
platoons and one section of 8 ; or into 4 platoons of 
12 men each. 

When the number is more than sufficient for a 
front of 48 or 64, some of the more expert troopers 
will act as Corporals, the latter then acting as Ser- 
geants. If the strength is sufficient, the number 
of non-commissioned officers, (and troopers acting 
as such,) will equal the number prescribed in the 
Squadron Drill, and their posts will be the same as 
there indicated. (See first pages of Squadron 
Drill.) 

In the assignment of posts with the supposition 
that 48 or 64 rank and file are present, we will 
designate the Captain as No. 1, the next in rank 
No. 2, and so on to the 4th Corporal, who will be 
No. 11. 

The company, formed as squadron in line of bat- 
tle, the positions will be as follows: 

No. 1, 1 yard in front of centre of company. 

" 2, " " " " "' " 1st platoon. 

« 3, " " " " " l; 4th " 

i, 4 u ii u ii n i; oj^ it 

' on 



230 SINGLE RANK FORMATIONS. 



No. 5, 


1 ya 


id in front of centre of 3d platoon, 


" 6, 


on the right flank, not counted. 


" ?, 


u 


left '• " 


" 8> 


u 


11 of the 1st platoon. 


" 9, 


C£ 


right " 2d " 


" 10, 


u 


left " 3d 


"11, 


a 


right '• 4th " 



Experienced troopers should be assigned to the 
flanks of platoons and sections. 

The horses are conducted to the drill ground as 
directed in the first pages of the Drill of the, 
Trooper, and having arrived there, the Captain 
commands : 

Attention ! In one rank — Form Squadron.* 

The Captain and chiefs of platoons are now mounted;: 
all the rest "stand to horse" that is to say, they take the 
position of the trooper dismounted. The Captain and chiefs 
of platoon face the centres of their respective commands 
at 10 yards distance measured from head to head. 

At the above command, the company is formed 
with the tallest on the right. The Captain having 
ascertained that the positions haye been taken as 
directed,")" he commands : 

Attention ! Right — Dress. 

*In practicing the Squadron movements, the word 
"Squadron" is used in the commands. 

fThe positions of all besides the Capiain and chiefs of 
platoon are the same as in line of battle"; the trumpeters 
25 yards (unless otherwise ordered) in rear of the cen- 
tre; the file-closers 1 yard in rear of the 3d files from 
the flanks. For further directions, see first pages of 
Platoon Drill. 



MNGLE RANK FORMATIONS. 23 L 

The dress being completed, he commands: 
Front, and directs the Orderly Sergeant to call 
the roll ; which having been done and the absentees 
reported, the Captain commands : 

In each platoon — COUNT BY FOURS. 

This is executed as directed in the platoon and 
squadron, omitting what is prescribed for the rear 
rank. 

The Captain cautions the troopers to recollect 
their numbers, and then commands : 

PREPARE TO MOUNT. 

At the command prepare to mount, all other 
eavalry than mounted riflemen will be governed by 
the principles laid down in the Drill of the Trooper. 

Mounted Riflemen will observe the principles 
explained in the Mounted-Rifle-Drill. 

The same remarks are applicable to the execu- 
tion of the next following command, viz : Mount; 
also to the execution of the commands, "Prepare 
to dismount" and "Dismount." 

Having mounted, all will take posts as above 
prescribed, for battle order; mounted riflemen con- 
forming to the rules prescribed for that class of 
mounted troops. 

The company being in line, to execute a move- 
ment by files from one of the flanks, the Captain 
commands : 

1. By files to the right (or left.) 2. March. 
At the 1st command, the chief of the platoon 



232 SINGLE RANK FORMATIONS. 

which should begin the movement, with the right 
(or left) particular guide following him, will place 
himself facing in the direction indicated, on the 
prolongation of the flank, the croup of the Ser- 
geant's horse being one yard from the boot of the 
flank man. 

At the word march, the trooper on the flank in- 
dicated will turn and follow the Sergeant guide of 
that flank. All the others will turn in succession, 
each one opening the rein and closing the leg on 
the side indicated, promptly, so as to take and pre- 
serve the distance of 2 feet from the file in front of 
him. 

The chiefs of (all except the leading) platoon 
will march one yard from their leading files, abreast 
of them and on the side of guides.* 

The guide of that flank which has now become 
the rear will march 2 feet behind the last file in the 
column. 

The Captain will march on the side of guides 4 
yards from the centre. 

When 3 Lieutenants are present, the 3d in rank 
will command the 2d platoon, and a corresponding 
change will be made in the posts of the non-com- 
missioned officers. The music will turn to the 
right (or left) when the centre files turn, lraintain- 
ing the same relative position as in line, except 
when ordered to the front or rear, or when obsta- 
cles require a change. 

One bugler will follow the Captain at 3 yards 
distance. 

*The "side of the guides" is the left when the right is 
in front, and the right when the left is in front. 



SINGLE RANK FORMATIONS. 233 

In the column of route, pas-ing along highways 
or streets,, or marching in review, the music will 
move 6 yards in front of the leading officer. 

Columns of fours, twos, and files are formed to 
the front from either flank, by the commands and 
on the principles prescribed in the drills of the 
Platoon and Squadron. 

The column of files being in motion, right in 
front, to form line facing to the left, without gain- 
ing ground to that flank, the Captain commands : 

1. Front. 3. Right — Dress. 

2. Halt. 4. Front. 

At the word front, the leading officer and Ser- 
geant turn promptly to the left, and halt at the 
word halt. All the rest move forward in the orisji- 
nal direction of the column, each trooper com- 
mencing his turn to the left when 2 yards from his 
place in the new line, halting 1 yard short of the 
line, and then gradually dressing up, without pass- 
ing over it. 

The chiefs of platoon will take their posts as 
soon as half of their platoons have come up to the 
line. 

The Captain taking position near the right flank, 
will direct the alignment, not giving the viorA front 
until the last file is aligned. 

The column of files left in front will be formed 
facing to the right of the column, without gaining 
ground to the right, on the same principles, but by 
inverse means, at the commands : 



234 SINGLE RANK FORMATIONS. 

1. Front. 3. Left — Dress. 

2. Halt. 4. Front. 

The movexents "right into line" and "left into 
line" are executed as directed in the second and 
third parts of this volume. The latter move- 
ments require 30 yards to be gained to the flank, 
but in ether respects are similar in execution to the- 
"■Front, halt." 

All other movements of cavalrj are fully ex- 
plained in the three first parts of this work, or in 
the following instructions for Mounted Riflemen. 

Corps of cavalry designed exclusively for the 
latter branch of service will form and manoeuvre 
altogether on the following principles, supplying 
what is wanting in. the- following rules and explana- 
tiens from the 1st, 2d and 3d parts. 

With such corps, the actual engagement being 
principally on foot, the Light Infantry exercises of 
the schools of the soldier and company should be 
well understood. 

Remark. — The large size bowie-knife, Dr the sword- 
bayonet, is perhaps preferable to the sabre for the 
mounted-rifle service,, and the rifles should be breech- 
loaders of long range. 



SKIRMISH 

§rill of Htnnthfr |iifits> 



ARTICLE I. 

$ 1. — Composition of a company acting singly, and 
posts of officers, non-commissioned officers, &c. r &c. 

A company consists of one eaptain, one first 
lieutenant, one second lieutenant, oae brevet* se@- 
ond lieutenant, four sergeants, fou>v corporals, one 
farrier, one blacksmith, two buglers, and sixty-four 
privates minimum, seventy-four maximum. 

A company is divided into two platoons, which 
axe numbered from the right, first platoon and 
second, platoon. 

Each, platoon contains two sections.. The first 
and second sections make up the first platoon ; the 
third and fourth sections make up the second pla- 
toon. 

Th« sections are called from the right in the 
order in which they stand — first, second, third amd 
fourth section. 

Each section is made up of "sets of four," which 
are called in the order in which they stand in their 
respective sections, from the right, "first set," 
"second set," "third set," &c, &c. 

Post of officers and non-commissioned officers of 
a company in line of battle, viz: 

*Or junior second lieutenant. 



o 






236 SKIRMISH DRILL TOR 

No. 1. Captain, ten yards in front of cen- " 
tre of company. 

No. 2. 1st lieutenant, five yards in front 
of centre of 1st platoon. 

No. 3. 2d lieutenant, five yards in front j g § 
of centre of 2d platoon. J § 

No. 4. Brevet 2d lieutenant, five yards in rear of 
centre of company, (not replaced when absent.) 

No. 5. 1st sergeant, on right of 1st section, not 
counted in the rank. 

No. 6. 2d sergeant, on right of 2d section, not 
counted in the rank. 

No. 7 3d sergeant, on right of 3d section, not 
counted in the rank. 

No. 8. 4th sergeant, on right of 4th section, not 
counted in the rank. 

No. 9. 1st corporal, on left of 1st section, not 
counted in the rank. 

No 10.. 2d corporal, on left of 2d section, not 
counted in the rank. 

No. 11. 3d corporal, on left of 3d section, not 
counted in the rank. 

No. 12. 4th corporal, on left of 4th section, not 
counted in the rank. 

Farrier and blacksmith in the rank ; bugler near 
and behind the captain, or on right of 1st sergeant, 
and one yard from him. 

4th section. 3d section. 2d section. 1st section. 



]'i 8 11 7 10 (') 'J 
, lv ( 

2d pi" *-*'->" lot nl^tnnn. 



MOUNTED RIFLES. 237 

In line of battle there will be an interval of one 
yard between the corporal on the left of each sec- 
tion and the sergeant on the right of next section. 
In column of platoons the same interval will be 
observed. 

In column of platoons the oaptain will be habit- 
ually on the side of the guide, and about ten yards 
outside the centre of the column. The other offi- 
cers, non-commissioned officers, &c, will occupy the 
positions above indicated. 

In column of sections the captain will be ten 
yards outside the flank of the column on the side 
of the guide. 

The first lieutenant will be five yards outside the 
flank of the column on the side of the guide, and 
opposite the centre of the interval between the 1st 
and 2d sections. 

The second lieutenant will be five yards outside 
the flank of the column on the side of the guide, 
and opposite the centre of the interval belween the 
3d and 4th sections. 

The sergeants will be one yard in front of the 
centre of their respective sections, and will com- 
mand them. The corporals will be in the rank of 
their respective sections. 

The buglers will accompany the captain, or will 
be on the right of the leading sergeant of the col- 
umn. 

In column of fours, twos, or file, the captain will 
be ten yards outside the centre of the flank of the 
column, on the side of the guide. 

The 1st lieutenant will be five yards outside of 



238 SKIRMISH DRILL FOR 

the centre of the flank of his platoon, on the side 
of the guide. 

The 2d lieutenant will be five yards outside of 
the centre of the flank of his platoon, on the side 
of the guide. 

The sergeants (except the sergeant of the lead- 
ing section) will be abreast of the leading four, two, 
or file, of their respective sections, and on the side 
opposite the guide. 

The sergeant of the leading section will be in 
front of its leading four. 

In all columns the brevet 2d lieutenant, when 
there is one serving with the company, will be five 
yards outside of the centre of the flank of the col- 
umn, and on the. side opposite the guide. 

The corporal will, in all columns of fours, 
twos, and files, be on the side opposite the guide, 
abreast of the last set, two, or "file. In columns of 
companies, platoons, or sections, he remains in the 
rank. 

The company having been thus formed, will be 
drilled by the means and directions laid down in 
Cavalry Tactics for the squadron. 

The section will be drilled by the means and 
directions laid down in Cavalry Tactics for the 
platoon. 

The only changes necessary in order to make the 
one answer for the other, are those which result 
from the diminished depth of the rank and the use 
of the words "company" and "section," instead of 
"squadron" and "platoon :" — (e. g.) 

In forming to left into line from column of fours, 



MOUNTED RIFLES. 239 

the command must be changed to, " By fours left 
wheel." 

To mount. 

§ 2. — The command being dismounted in line of bat- 
tle, the men standing to horse, to mount, the commands 
of the Chief are: 

1. Prepare to mount. 2. Movnt.. 

At the first command, the sergeant and numbers- 
two and four of each section move five yards to the 
front, stepping off with the left foot, and regulating 
by the right. The corporals and numbers one and 
three stand fast until the others have cleared them ; 
all then prepare to mount according to the princi- 
ples laid down, in Cavalry Taetics, except that they 
take the end of the reins in the right hand, draw 
them through the left, which holds them above the 
middle of the neck of the horse between the thumb 
and hand, with the palm down, until the horse just 
feels the bit; then with the right hand adjust the 
stirrup to the left foot, and with the left hand take 
up a lock of the mane so that its end comes out by 
the thumb ; then take the surplus part of the reins 
in the right hand between the thumb and hand, 
with the palm up, and seize the right side of the 
pommel with the right hand. 

At the second command, all mount together, 
and the corporals and numbers one and three 
immediately move forward, and place themselves 
boot to boot with the sergeants and numbers two 
and four. 



240 SKIRMISH DRILL FOR 

The Chief corrects the alignment, if it be neces- 
sary, commanding "Right — dress." The Assistant 
places himself at this command on the right of the 
line, looking along it, and correcting the files who 
are out of place. 

The Chief remains in front, in order to superin- 
tend the alignment. The Assistant commands 
" Steady," when the files are all correctly aligned; 
and then the Chief commands " Front. " 

To dismount. 

$ 3. — The command being mounted in line of battle, 
to dismount it the commands are : 

I. Prepare to dismount. 2. Dismount. 

At the first command, the sergeant and numbers 
two and four in each section move to the front five 
yards ; the corporals and numbers one and three 
stand fast. All then prepare to dismount in other 
respects as laid down in Cavalry Tactics, except 
that they take the reins in the left hand with a lock 
of the mane, and carry the right hand to the right 
side of the pommel. 

At the second command all dismount, leaving the 
reins over the pommel ; the sergeants and numbers 
two and four stand to horse, while the corporals and 
numbers one and three lead forward and form rank 
with them. 

To link. 

To link after dismounting, the man stands to 
horse, faces about to the rear, takes the link which 



MOUNTED RIFLES. 241 

hangs from the halter ring of the horse of his left 
file in his right hand, seizes his own horse by the 
bit near the mouth, and draws the horse of his left 
file towards his own until he can hook the snap 
into the curb ring; in hooking, the nails of his 
right hand are down. 

When he dismounts he leaves his reins over the 
pommel of the saddle. 

To facilitate the linking, the horse holder should 
bear his horse's head well towards number three. 

§4. — Form and course of inspection for the single 
rank formation : The company being formed in line, in 
one rank, mounted, the officers and non-commissioned 
officers, in their places, (see section 1,) to inspect it — 
the commands are : 

1. For inspection — Prepare to dismount. 

2. Dismount. 

At the first command, the first and second lieu- 
tenants move forward ten yards The brevet second 
lieutenant places himself upon the line with them, 
in front of the left file of the company; they all 
then return sabre arid prepare to dismount. 

The non-commissioned officers move forward ten 
yards, and prepare to dismount. 

Numbers two and four move forward five yards, 
and prepare to dismount. 

Numbers one and three prepare to dismount in 
their places. 

At the second command all dismount and stand 
to horse. They then shift the pistol holster to- 
wards the front of the body sufficiently to enable 



242 SKIRMISH DRILL FOR 

the inspecting officer readily to withdraw the pistol. 
The men then unsling rifles, order arms, and spring 
rammers without noise, with the right arm passed 
through the rein ; they then allow the rifle to fall 
across the body obliquely into the hollow of the 
left arm, which holds it with the fore-arm extended 
down, the barrel between the thumb and closed 
fingers. In this position they await the inspec-- 
tion. 

As soon as the inspecting officer perceives that 
the second command has been executed, he returns 
his sabre, dismounts, gives his horse to a trum- 
peter to hold, and commences his inspection on the 
right of the line of officers. He passes along the 
front of the line, around its left, and along its rear; 
he then passes to the front of the line of non- 
commissioned officers, which he inspects in the 
same manner. He draws and inspects the pistol 
of each man as he comes to him, and, after inspect- 
ing, returns it to the holster. He then passes to 
the right of the front line of men, draws and in- 
spects the pistol of the man on the right of that 
line, returns it to the holster, takes the rifle from 
the position in which it rests, and, after inspecting, 
returns it to that position; and so on throughout 
the line. Each man slings his rifle and re-adjusts 
his pistol, as soon as the inspector has passed one 
file beyond him. After having completed his in- 
spection of the men, horse3, arms, equipments, &c, 
from the front, the officer passes around the left 
and along the rear of the line, examining as he 
goes the condition of men, horses, arms, and equip- 



MOUNTED RIFLES. 243 

ments. He then inspects the rear line of men in 
the same manner. t 

After which he mounts, and commands , 

1. Prepare to mount. 4. Right — Dress. 

2. Mount. 5. Front. 

3. Form rank. 

At the first command all prepare to mount in 
their places. At the second command all mount, 
and the rear line of men move forward to their 
places, boot to boot with the front line of men. All 
then move forward together to the line of non-com- 
missioned officers, on which they are aligned by the 
fourth and fifth commands. 

The sabres are then inspected, as directed in Cavalry- 
Tactics, by the command : 

1. Inspection of sabre. 

If the company be in tents or other quarters, 
the valises or saddle bags and clothing are inspect- 
ed in the quarters. 

If in the field, the men will unstrap and display 
them on the ground at their feet, as they stand to 
horse, before they unsling rifles. 

The trumpeters will be near and in rear of the 
inspecting officer when he gives the first command. 
They will dismount with the rest. One of them 
holds the horse of the other, who goes to take that 
of the inspector. 



244 SKIRMISH DRILL FOR 

ARTICLE II. 

Skirmish drill for mounted rifles. 

§5. Preliminary remarks. 

For this drill the men should be dressed so as to 
secure the greatest freedom of action, as in the 
blouse or sack, and in the forage cap, with the chin- 
strap down. The revolver will be worn in a belt- 
holster upon the right side of the man. The gun 
will be slung across his back, with the butt near his 
right hip. In addition to the usual equipment of a 
cavalry soldier, each man will be provided with a 
" link," for the purpose of securing his horse when- 
ever he dismounts. It will be buckled in the 
halter-ring of the headstall, and when not wanted 
for immediate use, will be hooked up by the snap 
in the same ring. 

At the signal "boot and saddle," the horses will 
be saddled and bridled. 

At the signal "to horse," the command will be 
formed according to the instructions already given 
in section 2. 

Should the command be less than a complete 
company, the officer in charge of it will make such 
changes in its organization as are necessary in con- 
sequence of the absence of members. 

Every command, be it a full company or a scout- 
ing party less than a company, will be divided into 
four equal sections if possible. 

A section must contain at least eight men. 



MOUNTED RIFLES. 245 

Some portion of every command will be held in 
reserve, unless it is so small as to manifestly vender 
it unwise to divide it. Any section may form the 
reserve; and its commander will be assigned by 
selection and not according to rank. 

A "set of four" means the four men who tell 
off together. 

A " chief of four " is the right file of the set, or 
"number one" of the set, and will be habitually 
the guide of his set; when in column of fours, he 
will command the set to which he belongs. 

He will be responsible that the men of his set 
never separate from each other, and for the interval, 
distance, and alignment. 

The senior officer on drill is termed the "Chief," 
his next in rank is termed the "Assistant." 

Before skirmishing, two or three men will be 
detailed to accompany and protect the Chief 

Preparatory to skirmishing, a section will take 
open order. 

The interval between men in open order, mea- 
sured from " boot to boot," is twenty-seven inches.. 

In a column of fours, open order, the distance be- 
tween the sets of four, from croup to head, is 4 yards. 

In a column of twos, open order, the distance 
from croup to head is eighteen inches. 

In a column "by file," open order, the distance 
from croup to head is eighteen inches. 

These distances and interval are deduced from 
the length and breadth of the horse, and from the 
agreement which must exist between the depth of 
a column, and the length of the line into which it 
will wheel. 



246 SKIRMISH DRILL FOR 

The interval of twenty-seven inches will be 
found in practice ample to enable the men to mount 
and dismount in their places in line or in column, 
without the necessity of the alternate files moving 
out to the front for that purpose. 

In an enemy's country, or when in danger of 
sudden attack or ambuscade, the leading section 
of the company or scouting party should march 
in open order, so as to be able to get at once into 
action. 

To take open order. 

| 6. Being in line, right in front,, the- commands of 
the Chief are : 

1. 1st section, ( or 2d or 3c7, as the ease may be,) 
open order — GrALLOP. 
•L. March. 

At the first command all gather their horses; at 
the second command all take the gallop, except the 
centre file of the section, which trots out directly 
to the front. Those on the right of the centre 
oblique to the right, each man continuing to ob- 
lique until he has an interval of twenty-seven 
inches between him and the next file on his left ; 
those on the left of the centre continue to oblique 
to the left until each man has twenty- seven inches 
interval between him and the next file on his right. 
They all then align themselves on the centre, take 
up its gait, and continue to move to the front until 
the next command of the Chief. 



MOUNTKD RIFLES. 247 



To return to close order. 

Being in line, right in front, in open order, the com- 
mands of the Chief are : 

1. Close order — Trot. 2. Marcit. 

At the first command all gather their horses; at 
the second command the centre file moves to the 
front at the walk, the others close in towards him 
at the trot ; each in succession taking up the walk 
and aligning on the centre as he gains his position 
in the line. 

§ 7. The section being in line, right in front, open or- 
der, breaks into columns of fours, by the commands : 

1. By fours — Trot, (or Gallop.) 2. March. 

At the first command the first set of four gathers 
its horses, and takes the trot together at the second. 
After the first set has cleared the front of the line, 
or marched three yards, the second set moves out 
at the trot, ( or gallop,) marches straight to the 
front until clear of the Hne, and then obliques to 
the right until in position in column exactly be- 
hind the first set, and at four yards distance from 
it, when it marches to the front to take its place in 
eolumn. The ihird set follows the second, and so 
on throughout the section, according to the forego- 
ing directions. 

Care must be taken to avoid losing distance in 
this movement. The sets of four must move out 



248 SKIRMISH DRILL FOR 

promptly in turn, and oblique together. The Chief 
commands "Guide right" when the first set is out. 

A column of "twos" and "file" may be formed 
on the same principles and by the same means, ex- 
cept that the distance in these cases is only eighteen 
inches from head to croup. 

In all formations of this drill, the same princi- 
ples will be observed in regard to increasing the 
gait as are now established in Cavalry Tactics. 

When in column of fours, twos, or file, the va- 
rious methods of forming into line (front, right, or 
left,) can be executed by the commands and means 
laid down in Cavalry Tactics for the platoon. 

Observe: that as there is no rear rank, lines can 
be formed at once on either flank by wheeling by 
fours to the right or left. When the right of the 
column is in front, and the wheel is made by fours 
to the right, the sets will be in line by inversion. 
The men of each set will not be inverted. 

When the men are not well instructed in the 
drill, the deployments from close order into open 
order, and from open order into skirmishing order, 
should be made at the walk or trot. Habitually 
they should be executed at the gallop; and in ac- 
tion, with the greatest possible celerity compatible 
with steadiness. 

In deploying, the officers and non-commissioned 
officers will fall to the rear of the line in order to 
superintend the movement. 

Every movement not fully described in the fol- 
lowing pages will be understood to be executed, as 
is now ordered, in the system already in use. 



MOUNTED RIFLES. 249 

§ 8. To form column of two?, open order, fiom col- 
umn by file, marching at the walk, right in front, the 
commands are : .• 

1. Form twos, open order — Trot. 2. March. 

At the second command n ambers two and four 
oblique to the left at the trot, and move to the 
front when in rear of their places in columns of 
twos, until in line with their respective ones and 
threes. The leading; set of twos then being at the 
walk, all the others close up at the trot to their 
places, with distance of eighteen inches, and inter- 
val from boot to boot of twenty-seven inches. 

§ 9. To form column of fours, open order, from col- 
umn by file, when marching at the walk, right in front, 
the commands are : 

1. Form fours, open order — Trot. 2. March. 

At the first command number one of each set 
continues to march at the walk to the front; twos, 
threes, and fours of every set oblique to the left at 
the trot, each moving to the front when in rear of 
the place he will occupy in his set of four ; when 
they have gained their places in line with numbers 
one, the leading set being at the walk, the others 
take up the trot, which they keep until each has 
arrived at the distance of four yards from the cne 
preceding it; each in turn then takes up the walk. 
The Chief commands "Guide right" when the 
first set is formed. 

^ 10. To form column of fours, open order, from co- 
lumn of twos, open order, when marching at the walk, 
with right in front, the commands are : 



250 SKIRMISH DRILL FOR 

1. Form fours — Trot. 2. March. 

At the second command threes and fours oblique 
to the left at the trot, until opposite their places in 
the sets of four, when they move to the front, taking 
up the walk when in line with ones and twos. The 
Chief commands "Guide right" when the move- 
ment is completed. Ones and twos preserve the 
walk and direction during the movement; and after 
the other files have moved out, must take care not 
to diminish the distance left by them. If the 
column is trotting when the movement is ordered, 
it will be executed at the gallop. 

§ 11. To break from column of fours into column of 
twos, open or close order, marching at the walk, with 
right in front, the commands are : 

1. By twos. 2. March. 

At the second command numbers three and four 
halt until numbers one and two have cleared them, 
when they oblique to the right, promptly, into their 
places in column of twos. The Chief commands 
"Guide right" as soon as the movement is com- 
pleted. 

§ 12. To break a column of twos, in open or in close 
order, into column by file, when inarching at the walk, 
right in front, the commands are : 

1. By file— Trot. 2. March. 

At the second command number one of the 
leading set takes the trot. As soon as he has 



MOUNTED RIFLES. . 251 

cleared number two of the first set, number two 
obliques to the right at the trot, and enters the 
column behind number one. Number three then 
moves in his place in column at the trot, followed 
by number four, who, by obliquing at the trot, 
takes his place in rear of number three; and so on 
throughout the column, each even-numbered file 
obliquing at the trot as soon as the odd-numbered 
file on his right has cleared him. The files must 
move very promptly and exactly in their proper 
time, so as not to lose distance in this movement. 
Being in column of twos, wheels to the left may 
be executed when the right is in front; or to the 
right with the left in front, but not the reverse of 
these, for then the twos would be inverted in their 
respective fours, and confusion would result on ac- 
count of the change in position of the horse-holder. 

§ 13. To deploy forward as skirmishers, from a line, 
right in front, halted, or marching at any gait, the com- 
mands are : 

1. On (such') set — Deploy as skirmishers — 
Gallop. 

2. March. 

At the second command all take the gallop except 
the designated set, which trots out to the front. — 
Those on the right and left of it oblique at the 
gallop to the right and left, each set taking up the 
trot when on line with the directing set, and at 
fifteen yards from the nearest file of the next set on 
the side of direction. 

Iu this movement the chiefs of four will be held 



252 SKIRMISH DRILL FOR 

responsible for the direction and interval and align- 
ment of the men of their respective sets, and will 
see that the sets are at proper intervals from each 
other. The Chief will halt the line when it has 
reached the point where it is to act. 

The following movements will enable cavalry, 
when on a march, to get into action with the least 
possible delay, in case of an attack when passing a 
defile or of any other ambuscade. 

It is understood that always, when dismounted 
to fight, the horse-holders remain mounted, unless 
otherwise ordered. 

In all the manoeuvres of this article the com- 
mands numbered " I" are cautionary. 

ARTICLE III. 

§ 14. To dismount to fight when in column of fours, 
open order, right in front, halted or marching at any 
gait, to meet an enemy on the left and front, the com- 
mands are : 

1. Dismount to fight. 

2. Action front and left. 

3. Commence firing. 

At the first command all halt, spring to the 
ground, link horses, unsling rifles, and step one 
yard to the front. At the second command the 
first set moves forward four yards, and at the third 
command commences firing. The other sets move 
at the double quick obliquely to the left, and take 
their places on the line with the first set. Each 
set, as soon as it arrives upon the line, commences 
firing. 



MOUNTED RIFLES. 258 

In case it is desired to form the line towards the 
right of the head of the column, the commands are : 
1. Dismount to fight ; 2. Action front and right ; 
3. Commence firing . All the sets except the first 
will then gain their places in the line by obliquing to 
the right. The sets will be in line by inversion. 
The men in each set will be in direct order. 

\ 15. Being in column of fours open older, right in 
front, marching at any gait, or halted, to meet an attack 
on left of rear, the commands are: 

1. Dismount to fight. 

2. Action rear and left. 

3. Commence firing. 

At the first command all halt, spring to the 
ground, link horses, unsling rifles, and step one 
yard to the front. At the second command the 
men of the rear set face to the right, and, led by 
their chief, file to the right around the rear set of 
horses to a line five yards in rear of their 1 croups. 

At the second command all the other sets face 
to the left, and move at the double-quick. Each 
man as he clears the column moves obliquely to the 
left and rear to his place on the line with the rear 
set. 

If it be desired to get at once into action, the 
Chief commands "Commence firing" as soon as the 
set first on the line is established. This set then 
commences the fire; and each of the others takes 
it up in succession as it arrives upon the line ; and 
in all of the following movements the same rule 
will be observed. 
22 



254 SKIRMISH DRILL FOR 

$ 16. Being in column of fours, open order, right in 
front, marching at any gait, or halted, to meet an attack 
from the right of the column, the commands are: 

1. Dismount to fight. 

2. Action right. 

At tlie first command all halt, spring to the 
ground, link horses, unsling rifles, and step one 
yard to the front. At the second command all 
move briskly upon a line five yards outside the right 
flank of the column, where they take their places, 
in line of battle, faced to the right. The sets will be 
in order by inversion ; but the men in each set will 
be in direct order, the chief being on the right. 
From this position they may be deployed forward 
as skirmishers, if it be desired. 

§ 17. When in column of fours, open order, right in 
front, halted or marching-, to meet an attack from the 
left, the commands are : 

1. Dismount to fight.. 

2. Action left. 

At the first command all halt, spring to the 
ground, link horses, unsling rifles, and step one 
yard to the front. At the second command all 
move briskly to the left, and place themselves on a 
line five yards outside the left flank of the column, 
facing to the left of it, and in their proper places 
in line of battle. From this position they may be 
deployed forward as skirmishers, if desired. 

(S 18. Being in column of twos, with right in front, 
marching at any gait, or halted, to meet an enemy on 
left of front, the commands are: 



MOUNTED RIFLES. 255 

1. By twos, left wheel — MARCH. 

2. Dismount to fight. 

3. Action front and left. 

At the first command, the twos wheel to the left 
and halt. At the second command all dismount, 
link horses, unsling rifles, and step one yard to the 
front. At the third command the leading set moves- 
to a line five yards to the right of the right flank, 
as now formed, and facing in that direction. The 
others move obliquely to their right and front, at 
the double quick, and take their plaees on line with 
the first. 

If it be desired to form the line towards the right of 
the head of the column, the commands are : 

1. By twos, left wheel — March. 

2. Dismount to fight. 

3. Action front s and right. 

Each of the sets in rear of the leading set will 
then gain its place in the line by passing through 
the interval on the right of its set of horses, and 
moving obliquely to the right and front, to its place 
in line with the leading set. The sets will be in 
line by inversion. 

\ 19. Being in column of twos, right in front, march- 
ing at any gait, or halted, to meet an enemy in rear, the 
commands are : 

1. By twos, left wheel — March. 

2. Dismount to fight. 

3. Action rear and left. 



256 SKIRMISH LRILL FOR 

At the first command all wheel by twos into line 
to the left, and halt. At the second command all 
dismount, link horses, unsling rifles, step one yard 
to the front, and await the next command. At the 
third command the rear set faces to the left, and 
moves at the double-quick to its place on a line five 
yards to the left of the left flank, as now formed, 
and facing in that direction. The other sets face 
obliquely to the left, and move off at the double- 
quick to their places in the line with the rear set. 

If it be desired to form the line to the right in- 
stead of the left, the first two commands are the 
same as in the other case; the third command is, 
"Action rear and right;" at which the rear 
set takes its place on the line as before, and 
the others pass through the intervals to the left of 
their sets of horses, respectively, and take their 
places in succession on the left of the set first es- 
tablished. The sets will 'then be in line by inver- 
sion. 

| 20. Being in column of twos, marching. at any gait, 
or halted, with right in front, to dismount to fight in 
order to meet an enemy on the right flanl;, the com- 
mands are : 

1. By twos, left wheel— March. 

2. Dismount to fight — Action right. 

At the first command the twos wheel into line to 
the left and halt. At the second command all dis- 
mount and link. In linking, the men remain faced 
to the front, and take the link, in the left hand, and 
the bit in the right. After linking they face about, 



MOUNTED RIFLES. 257 

unsling rifles, and take their places in a line five 
yards outside the croups of the horses. The cau- 
tionary words "action right" should be uttered 
immediately after "dismount to fight." 

The method of linking' is changed in this in- 
stance to avoid the inconvenience which might re- 
sult from the men having to stoop under the links, 
after linking, in order to pass to their position in 
rear of the horses. 

\ 21. Being in column of twos, right in front, march- 
ing at any gait, or halted, to dismount to fight, to meet 
an. enemy on the left, the commands are : 

1. By twos, left wheel — March. 

2. Dismount to fight. 

At the first command wheel by twos into line to 
the left and halt; at the second command all dis- 
mount, link horses, unsling rifles, step five yards to 
the front and stand fast. 

In case it should be desired in any of the prece- 
ding manoeuvres to form the line in an oblique di- 
rection, the commands would be the same; but the 
set first in the line would be placed in the desired 
direction, and the others would conform to it. The 
Chief will judge from the circumstances which of 
the manoeuvres to adopt — whether the flank, the 
front, or the rear. 

In all the cases of this article the command 
"Commence firing" will be the signal for the set 
first on the line to open fire. The other sets, if not 
on the line when it is given, wfll commence firing 
as soon as practicable after they arrive on the line. 
22* 



258 SKIRMISH DRILL FOR 



ARTICLE IV. 

\ 22. To deploy as skirmishers, when dismounted, 
the command is : 

1. On (such) set — Deploy — Forward. 

At this command the section springs forward at 
the double-quick. The sets on the right of the di- 
recting set move obliquely towards the right until 
opposite their places in line of battle, when they 
move to the front, aligning by the left. 

The sets on the left of the directing set move 
obliquely towards the left until opposite their places 
in line of battle, when they move to the front, 
aligning by the right. All move forward until 
halted by the Chief. 

When in proper position in line of battle, thus 
deployed, there will be fifteen yards between sets 
and three feet between files in each set. 

The firing will commence at the command of the 
Chief. 

If it be desired to deploy on the line already oc- 
cupied, the command will be "On (such) set — 
, Deploy." 

The directing set stands fast; the sets to the right 
and left of it face to the right and left, respectively, 
and move at the double-quick to take their inter- 
vals; then face to the front, and align themselves 
on the directing set. 

$ 23. To deploy as skirmishers, mounted, from a col- 
umn of fours, right in front, the commands are : 

1. On (such) set — Deploy — Gallop. 2. Marok. 



MOUNTED RIFLES. 259 

At the second command the directing set trots 
out to the front; those in front of it ohlique to the 
right at the gallop ; those in rear to the left at the 
gallop ; and all take trot when they have gained 
their intervals of fifteen yards, aligning themselves 
by the directing set. The chief will halt the line 
when it has arrived where it is to act. 

To assemble the skirmishers into line or column 
again, the Chief will place himself at, or otherwise 
indicate, the point at which the directing set is to 
rest, and have the rally sounded. At this signal 
the sets will close in at the gallop upon the indica- 
ted point and take their places in line of battle. 

When the line is formed, it will be broken into 
column, in order to advance or retire as may be 
necessary. 

\ 24. Having been thus deployed into line for skir- 
mishing, to commence action, the commands are: 

1. Dismount to fight. 3. Halt. 

2. Forward. 4. Commence firing . 

At the first command, all, except the horseholders, 
dismount, link horses, unsling rifles, step one pace 
to the front, and await the next order. At the sec- 
ond command the line moves forward at the double- 
quick until halted. At the fourth command the 
right file of each set delivers his fire, and he is fol- 
lowed in succession by the other two. 

The chief of four will take care that there is al- 
ways one gun loaded in his set ; this will never be 
neglected, whether in advancing or retreating. 
The files of each set must depend upon each other 



260 SKIRMISH DRILL FOR 

for support and assistance ; they must never sepa- 
rate; every kind of cover must be seized and occu- 
pied by the skirmishers ; each chief of four must 
be alert to perceive such advantages for his set, 
taking care, however, that in attempting to secure 
them he does not separate too far from the other 
sets of the line to receive or give support when 
necessary. 

The horses will be habitually kept at about one 
hundred yards in rear of their riders, though they 
shculd be nearer, when they can find shelter from 
fire which will admit of it. Fifty yards will be far 
enough when the enemy does not use fire-arms. 

They will be under charge of a non-commissioned 
officer ; and when it is desired to remount rapidly, 
should be advanced to meet their riders. The re- 
serve will be kept mounted and where it can best 
protect the horses of the dismounted men and get 
into action best.. 

The deployed line will be manoeuvred by the 
commands, signals, and means provided in the Cav- 
alry Tactics. 

If it be desired to fight mounted, the Chief will 
command the charge. The men will then draw 
sabre or pistol and charge. 

\ 25. The section being in column of fours, open or- 
der, right in front, and at the walk, to take close order, 
the commands are : 

I. Close order — Trot. 2. March, 

At this command number one of the leading 
set marches to the front at the walk. The other 



MOUNTED RIFLES. 261 

men of his set closing upon him at the trot until 
each has gained his place in the set of four in close 
order. The set then walks. The other sets close 
at the trot in the same manner, each walking 
when it has closed to eighteen inches from that in 
its front. • 

| 26. The section being in column of twos, right in 
front, open order, to take close order, the commands are : 

1. Close order. 2. March. 

At this command, numbers two and four incline 
to the right, slightly quickening the gait and place 
themselves boot to boot with numbers one and 
three. 

\ 27. To form column of fours, in close order, when 
marching in column of file at the walk, with right in 
front, the commands are: 

1. Form fours. 2. Trot — March. 

At the second command, number one of the 
leading set continues to march to the front at the 
walk. All the others oblique to the left at the trot; 
each man marching to the front when in rear of 
his place in his set of fours in close order, and 
aligning by number one of his set. All of the sets 
(except the leading set) continue the trot until 
they have closed up to within eighteen inches of 
each other, and then take the walk. 



262 SKIRMISH DRILL FOR 

ARTICLE V- 

§ 28. To sling rifles, from carry arms, the command is 

1. Sling rifles. 

At this command, raise the piece with the right 
hand a little higher than the hip, inclining the 
barrel over the right shoulder, and in rear of the 
head; at the same time, with the left hand near 
the right shoulder, move the sling out from the 
barrel, thrust the head, right shoulder and right 
arm through the opening; let the piece fall into 
its position, steadying it with the right hand, and 
drop the hands by the side. 

To unsling rifles, the command is: 

1. Unsling rifles. 

At this command, pass the right hand through 
the opening between the sling and piece near the 
right hip, bear the piece towards the front with the 
right arm, seize it with the right hand as in carry 
arms, and raise it a little above the right hip; at 
the same time, with the left hand, free the sling 
from the head, and lower the piece to the position 
of carry arms. 

§ 29. All of the movements described herein are 
supposed to be executed when the right is in front. 
It will be understood that they can all be executed 
when the left is in front upon the same principles 
by inverse means. 



MOUNTED RIFLES. 263 

The men should always, after dismounting, leave 
their reins over the pommel of the saddle. 

When more than two full companies are serving 
together, and their front in single rank would be 
unduly extended, all lines should be formed of 
companies in column of platoons at wheeling dis- 
tance. 

As far as possible, the composition of the differ- 
ent sets will remain unchanged, and every thing 
should be done which will promote the mutual de- 
pendence of the men of each set on each other. 

They should act together as much as possible on 
all kinds of duty, as well in the fatigue duties of 
the camp or garrison as when on drill or in action. 

All details should be made as much as practica- 
ble, of sets of four, rather than of individuals from 
different sets; and the chief of four should be 
always in command of his set, and invested with 
the authority of a non-commissioned officer over it. 
He must see that his men stand by each other in 
action, and whether in the charge, in pursuit, or in 
retreat, that they never separate. After the men 
and horses are familiar with the drill, all of its 
movements should be executed at the gallop. 

The men should be made to saddle up with the 
greatest possible despatch whenever the " boot and 
saddle" sounds. 

Always before using their guns, the men must 
dismount. 

In order to avoid fretting the horses, the men 
should be at least five yards from them before they 
commence firing. 

When the men are in action on foot, they should 



264 SKIRMISH DRILL FOR 

be manoeuvred with due reference to the safety of 
their horses. 

While the horses should be so far in rear of the 
men as to be out of the range of the enemy's fire, 
they should not be so far that their riders cannot 
reach them before the enemy, if an attempt should 
be made to capture or stampede them. Generally, 
in open ground, one hundred yards will be about 
the maximum distance. They should be nearer, if 
they can be safe from fire. 

One of the non-commissioned officers of each 
section should be left in charge of its horses when 
the men dismount to fight, and he will be held 
responsible for their security and proper manage 
ment. The other will dismount with his section 
linking his horse to that of the nearest number one 

Jn this drill, inversions of platoons, of sections 
and of sets of four should be frequently practiced 
but the individual men of the sets should never 
either when mounted or on foot, be inverted in 
their sets. 

When the company is about to be formed, two 
or three men will be detailed to accompany the 
chief during the drill or skirmish. 

Whenever the men are dismounted, at the com- 
mand "mount" they will run to their, horses with- 
out unnecessary noise, unlink and mount. 

When the "rally" is sounded, the skirmishers 
will close upon the indicated point at the gallop, 
and by the quickest means. 

When charging in line with pistols or sabres, 
the officers must ride in the rank ; the captain on 
the right of the first platoon, the first lieutenant 



MOUNTED RIFLES. 265 

on the left of it, the second lieutenant on the right 
of the second platoon, and the brevet second lieu- 
tenant on its left. In case of the absence of any 
one of them, his place must not be supplied by the 
next in rank, except on the flank of the company. 
All the commands should be habitually given 
with the trumpet; and, on drill, the trumpeters 
should always accompany the chief. It is very 
important that, in this drill, the men should learn 
perfectly what the signals mean. 



A GLOSSARY OF TERMS 

USED IN 

CAVALRY TACTICS. 



About. — About-face is a change of front on the heels as 
pivots over an arc of 180°, that is to say over a semi- 
circle ; about-wheel is a circular movement of the 
line on one flank as pivot, so that the new front is the 
former rear. 

Alignment. — The act of straightening or forming troops 
or individuals on right lines, marked by fixed points 
or guides. It also signifies the line itself. 

Assembly. — A trumpet call. The collecting and uniting 
together in order the units on parts of military corps. 

Army. — An armed body of men. It is usually applied 
to large collections of troops comprising several arms 
of service. 

Artillery. — All the offensive weapons of war; techni- 
cally, cannon and such weapons as are too heavy for 
the use of single men. As a distinct arm of service, 
it embraces only those corps whose appropriate arms 
are of the last named description. Light artillery 
drawn by horses should be organized in squadrons. 

Breech. — The extremity of a gun nearest the vent or 
cone. 

Breech-loader. — All fire-arms not loaded by the muzzle. 
These, including revolvers and repeating arms, are 
the only suitable guns for horsemen. 



268 GLOSSARY. 

Brigade.— The command of a Brigadier-General ; com- 
posed of 2 or more regiments; 2 or more brigades 
form a division. 

Cavalry. — Soldiers who serve chiefly on horseback ; for- 
merly they were confined to the mounted service ; 
and those who were armed with muskets, serving 
often on foot, were called dragoons. In our service 
the difference is merely nominal. 

Carbine. — A si or: musket much used by cavalry. The 
only varieties of carbine now approved by expe- 
rienced commanders are such as lead at the breach, 
and revolvers. 

Charge. — A rapid movement either at the gallop oi trot- 
out, by which actual contact with the enemy is ob- 
tained. 

Column. — Parallel lines of troops, generally at equal dis- 
tances. In signification, it is opposite to line; also, 
in cavalry, it means single men and horses arranged 
one behind another, or a similar arrangement of 
twos, fours, sections, platoons, &c. 

Column of route. — Is usually a column of files imos or 
fours, but should be formed of platoons, when obsta- 
cles do not prevent. 

Column with distance — Column of platoons with wheel- 
ing distance, that is, distance between them equal to 
the front of a platoon. 

Close column. — Column of squadrons with 12 yards dis- 
tance. 

Countermarch is usually understood as a movement 
which changes the direction to one opposite ; its 
tactical meaning is, a flank movement by files which 
changes the front to the former rear. 

Commands are of three kinds: 1st. That of caution, 
which is " attention," the last syllable being strongly 
emphasized; 2d. The preparatory command, which 
indicates the desired movement; 3d. That of execu- 
tion, such as <; March," or " Halt" on receiving 



GLOSSARY. 269 

which, the execution of the commands follows in- 
stantly. In the manual at arms and in the foot drill 
the commands especially of execution should be dis- 
tinct, but very short ; but all others should be pro- 
longed considerably. The commands are numbered 
1, 2, 3, &c, which numbers are not expressed in giv- 
ing the. commands. 

Company. — A rlumber of soldiers usually varying from 
50 to 100. This is the regimental unit for infantry, 
but not for cavalry; the latter should therefore be 
required by law to organize in squadrons. 

Croup. — The buttocks of a horse. 

Cuirassier. — A horseman wearing defensive armour. 

Distance is measured perpendicular to the proper front, 
or from front to rear; thus the distance between the 
front and rear rank in close order is 2 feet ; that be- 
tween squadrons in close order is 12 yards. 

Depth is the extent from the head to the rear of a column. 

DEPLOYMENT.-The movement from close column into line. 

Defile. — A narrow pass between obstacles compelling a 
reduction of the front of column or line. 

Division, in the squadron, is composed of 2 platoons ; a 
half-squadron ; in an army a division is two or more 
brigades. 

Direct-march is a forward movement perpendicular to 
the alignment. 

Diagonal-march is one which commences with a wheel 
of an eighth of a circle, to gain a certain point to 
the right or left. 

Evolutions of a regiment are the movements by which 
a regiment passes from one formation to another ; 
evolutions of the line are the corresponding move- 
ments of two or more regiments. 

Execution. — The carrying into effect any order. This 
must be done with promptness on the reception of a 
command. 

23* 



270 GLOSSARY. 

File. — The import of this term depends on the number 
of ranks; in infantry formations in 3 ranks a file 
would be 3 men ; in cavalry formations in 2 ranks a 
file consists of 2 men, mounted or dismounted ; when 
there is but one rank a file is only 1 man ; in gen- 
eral a file is 1 man for every rank in the formation ; 
a file of men in common parlance is 2 private soldiers. 
In file, the men stand one behind the other. 

File-leader is the front man of the file. 

File-closers are the non-commissioned officers, posted 
1 yard behind the rear rank; but sometimes com- 
missioned officers thus posted act as file-closers. 

Front is the direction perpendicular and before the line 
or column; the reverse of rear. 

Flank. — The right or left side of a column or line. 

Flank-march. — A movement to the right or left, com- 
mencing by a wheel over a quarter circle. 

Formation. — The mode or order of arranging troops ; 
also the act of placing the fractions of corps inline 
or column. 

Forage. — Food for animals ; as a verb, to range over the 
country in quest of provisions for man and beast. 

Foragers. — Soldiers detailed to impress or otherwise 
collect food, or anything else for public service. 

Forager's charge. — A charge in open and extended 
order, each trooper acting separately and according 
to circumstances. 

Fie",d-ofpicers. — Those above the rank of captain and 
not being of the staff; but field officers by rank 
often serve on the staff. 

Guide. — The trooper, either sergeant, corporal or private, 
by whose march that of the others on his right or 
left is regulated. 

Guide of the column is the man on one of the flanks of 
the front rank of a column, who is charged with the 
direction of the march. 



GLOSSARY. 271 

Guide of the march in line. — The sergeant, file-closer 
of one of the wings, who in the march in line, re- 
places the particular guide, when the latter places 
himself in the line of officers, to ensure the direction 
of the march by serving as an intermediate point. 

General Guides are the two sergeants who, in the form- 
ation of a regiment, mark the point where the right 
and left flanks are to rest; they are selected in the 
first and last squadrons, and are under the orders of 
the Adjutant and Sergeant-Major, for the tracing of 
lines 

Guides Principal. — The principal guides are the ser- 
geants who serve to mark the intermediate points of 
formation in line. The sergeants file-closers of the 
1st and 4th platoons are the principal guides of their 
squadrons. 

Guides particular are the sergeants who place them- 
selves on the line of formation to mark the front of 
their squadrons as they arrive. The two sergeants 
of the flanks, who are not counted in the rank, are 
the particular guides of their squadrons. In march- 
ing, the position of the guide who regulates the 
movement of the line or column is indicated by the 
commands guide left or guide right ; as a general rule 
the guide is left when the column is right in front, and 
vice-versa, unless especially ordered otherwise ; in 
the oblique march the guide is on the side toward 
which the oblique is made, and when the primitive 
direction is resumed, the guide is where he was be- 
fore obliquing. 

In columns composed of cavalry and infantry, the cav- 
alry guides cover the 2d file of the subdivisions of 
infantry, on the side of the guides. 

In line, officers in front of squadrons align themselves 

on the rear rank of infantry. 
Gallop. — The speed at the slowest gallop is 300 yards 

per minute. 
Guidon. — A small pennon or flag carried on the left of 

the 1st and 3d platoons. 



272 GLOSSARY. 

Gather horse. — This is the sign by which the trooper 
prepares his horse for any movement. It is made 
by raising the bridle hand and drawing it slightly 
towards the body, at the same time closing the legs 
a little, behind the girths. 

Haunches. — The hinder portions of the horse in advance 
of the buttocks and after the last ribs. 

Interval. — The lateral space between squadrons, or 
troops, or fractions of troops. 

Inverse. — Opposite to what is customary and natural.. 

Inverse order. — An arrangement reversing the ordi- 
nary and natural relative positions ; when the sub- 
divisions of a corps are in inverse order, their right 
is where their left would naturally be. 

Inversion. — The change from the natural to the inverse 
order. 

Infantry. — Foot soldiers ; but infantry is sometimes 
mounted temporarily for rapid movements. 

Lighthorse. — Cavalry lightly armed and equipped; now 
synonymous with light cavalry or light dragoons. 

Line, or Line of Battle. — That order or disposition of 
troops, in which all the companies, squadrons, &c, 
stand in the same row or line, in 1, 2, or 3 ranks ; 
the line being either curved or straight. 

Lance. — A weapon with a wooden shaft and metalic 
head and point ; much used among the semi-civili- 
zed races ; also used, to some extent, by European 
cavalry, but little used by ours. The length varies 
from 8 to 11 feet, 10J being the most approved 
length from butt to point. 

Manoeuvres. — Tactical changes of position by troops. 

Movement is nearly allied to manoeuvre; equally so to 
march, each term implying change of position; but 
a manoeuvre is generally considered to embrace 
several movements or marches. 

March. — The word of execution at which the required 
movement is instantly commenced; also thesimul- 



GLOSSARY. 273 

taneoiis or successive movement of troops from one 
point to another. A rfay's march, without unusual 
impediment.?, ir- from 15 to 17 miles; longer-day's- 
journeys ore called forced marches ; these are used 
only when required by circumstances; light troops 
often march on urgent occasions from 20 to 40 miles 
in one Hay, and small bodies of cavalry have, in re- 
treat or pursuit, accomplished 90 miles in less than 
24 hours. 
Such marches are, of course, destructive to man and 
beast and must not be allowed, except when vitally 
essential to the success of important enterprises. 

Oblique. — A direction between front and flank. 

Oblique march. — A march gaining ground to the flank 
withoutchanging front. 
In the iiidwithjtil oblique march, each man executes an 
oblique movement; making a quarter-turn to the 
right or left as ordered. 

Obliqu* march by troop is executed by the movement, at 
the same time of each of the sub-divisions of a troop 
in line.. In general the different changes of front 
of squadron require oblique movement by the half- 
wheeling of sub-divisions. 

OBSTACLE. — Whatever obstructs the march, requiring a 
temporary reduction of the extent of front. 

Organization. — Arrangement and distribution of the di- 
visions, sub-divisions, and corps of every sort, under 
suitable chief;, into effective bodies. 

Pace. — In cavalry, one yard ; the pace or step, when not 
mounted, is 28 inches. 

Picket. — A short stake to which the trooper attaches the 
rein or rope which is to confine his horse in the camp 
or bivouac. It should be at least 18 inches long, 
and of tough, elastic, material. The animal is best 
confined by a strap around the pastern. 

PlVOT. — The man or flank which in a wheel turns 
without gaining or losing ground, and in a turn 



274 GLOSSARY. 

marches over a short curved path or arc of circle ; 

in 2 ranks the front rank man is pivot. 
In wheeling, the pivot is said to be fixed, because it turns 

on its own centre without advancing or receding. 
In turning, the pivot is said to be moveable, because 

it marches on an arc of circle. 
The turn is sometimes called a wheel on a moveable 

pivot. 
Where there are more than one single file, the arc is 

increased in proportion to the number of files 

abreast. Single files turn on an arc 3 yards long. 

But the pivot man of any number in line, from 2 to 

15 inclusive, turn on an arc of 5 yards. 

The curved path or arc, moved over by a pivot — 

Of twos, fours, sections of 8. files, and platoons of 

12, is 5 yards. 
Of Divisions of 24 files, is 10 yards. 
Of Squadrons of 48 files, is 20 yards. 
Of Platoons of 16 files, is 6 yards. 
Of Divisions of 32 files, is 12 yards. 
Of Squadrons of 64 files, is 24 yards. 

The above is the length of the pivot-arcs in the 
wheel, or rather turn over a quarter of a circle ; the 
arc will be shortened or lengthened as the turn is 
less or more than 90 degrees 

Pivot-flank is that flank around which is executed the 
wheel into line in natural order. 

Platoon. — The fourth of a squadron, or the half of a 
division ; it is composed of 12 files in the squadron 
of 48 ; of 16 files in the squadron of 64 ; when it 
has 16 files, it is sub-divided into SECTIONS of 8 files. 

Ployment. — The movement from regiments in line, to 
close column ; it is the reverse of deployment, the 
latter being the movement from column into line. 

Points. — Points of direction, or fixed points, serve to point 
out the direction in which a troop in line or column 
is to march ; also to mark the right and left of lines. 



GLOSSARY. 27 

Intermediate points are those taken between the fixed 
points, to preserve the exactness of direction and 
straightness of the lines. 

Quartb (pronounced Carte.) — The position of the right 
hand, holding the sabre with the fingers to the left, 
nails upward; opposite to tierce. 

Rank. — Relative grade or degree among military men ; 
a rank of soldiers is a row of them side by side, or 
abreast. Cavalry is organized in 1 or in 2 ranks; 
the single or 1 rank system is believed by experi- 
enced officers to suit our service best. 

Rank and File. — The order of the common soldier; in 
common phrase, it is applied to all who are not 
commissioned officers. In this book it is limited to 
its strict signification, viz : those who compose the ranks 
and the files, therefore excluding all who are not 
counted into fours. 

Regiment. — The command of a colonel ; 3 to 5 squadrons 
are understood as forming a regiment; these latter 
numbers are the most approved for cavalry manoeu- 
vres and 3 are preferable to 5. 

Reverse plank. — The flank opposite to the pivot and 
usually opposite to the guide. 

Rifle. — The short breech-loading rifle is the best arm 
for our mounted service ; in battle the troopers 
should be dismounted when circumstances permit, 
using the rifle on foot and mounting again when 
necessary to pursue or retreat. 

Sabre. — The cavalry sabre should be very slightly 
curved, as light as consistent with strength and the 
point more relied on than the edge. 

Schabraque ( pronounced Shab-rack, ) is the saddle 
cover ; it should be water-proof. 

Squad is usually from 4 to 12 men united in 1 rank for 

drill. 
Squadron. — 48 or 64 files of mounted soldiers, divided 

into 4 platoons, 2 platoons making 1 division. 



276 GLOSSARY. 

Skirmishers.- — Light troops thrown forward in advance 
of the main body to observe the movements of the 
enemy, check his advance, and prevent surprise. 

Strategy. — The movements and operations of armed 
bodies when not within reach of projectiles. 

Staff. — Officers and non-commissioned officers not im- 
mediately connected with the line ; those of the 
quartermaster's department ; inspectors, paymas- 
ters, adjutants, &c, are of this class ; there is a 
medical staff also, a general staff, brigade staff, 
and a regimental staff. 

Tactics. — The movements of armed bodies when in 
reach of projectiles or weapons. 

Tampion. — A cylindrical piece of wood or other mate- 
rial to close up the muzzle of a gun. 

Tierce.— Opposite to quarte, the position of the sword- 
hand when the finger-nails are downward or to the 
right. 

Troop. — Any number of armed horsemen; k is usually 
applied to a company or division of 2 platoons. 

Trooper.— An armed horseman. 

Trot. — The cavalry movement, intermediate between 

the walk and the gallop; the common trot is about 

240 yards per,minute, the trot out is from 275 to 

300 yards per minute. 
Turn. — A sort of wheel in which the pivot is moveable, 

or gains ground. 

Unit. — A sub-division or part of armed bodies, most re- 
garded in the organization of those bodies ; thus 
the squadron is the proper unit of a regiment. 

Vault. — To mount without stirrups, by leaping or 
springing from the ground. 

Wheel. — A movement to the right or left in which one 
flank turns in its own place ; see pivot and turn. 
The definitions of wheel and turn are peculiar to 
mounted troops. The latter touch boot exclusively 
to the pivot, dress by both flanks, but especially by 
the wheeling or marching flank. 



I N D JLX 



I: PAET I.— DRILL OF THE/ O11O0EER, » r 

,.tjiioq "lifliif ;Jai'>q ptfgg'j-" 
Rist lessons, - ,i ■■■;., 4 irfsii ;,Mno<i f^I 

T#condtet<theihbrSe«s td'the'groiiTrf, » s - ,:; ' : i-' ! _." r « ! . r i 1f i^- 
Fofeition before mounting, *''» -■'■■»' : "P "'3'i.;?»> '•■<f2* 
Prepar«<t»-«nci«nt,':'*ifi"P nijus'i i«u: rtol .tjiV: ,- tun Tt^f 
Ttt mount, - - - -• • v - 1 l i 4 l - 

Bridlehand, <vvb j --y.4i.iBhu L ' ' 14' 

Leftgtfe of stirrup,,- - --' ''<ov»x •-. (!'>'> y.,\ \«'in$\ 

FoMtion of foot in stirrup, ^Wn^nn-v T ,-- sMi L-fiol^f' 
Foim ranks, - ■ M^d !«'« ^:.'- q il.!.w Uolj^I.' 

Petition mounted, - ^b'^-rl .-, .,.i i"l^-^ 

Ufie of reins, -■ - -■- Uol-d.-^nd :(.,>.„, i •; -ijgf? 

We of legs, JpJaiq iH-/lir/:'i H> nwijwijgl 

Effect of reins, - eI ^^oi .li^^vrltoi.yit-^^gl 

To march, 20 

To halt, ,jj£>j<.t ftOOTA>'Hl— ■- J> THA'L 21 

To turn, 21 

To turnabout «.«,,, ;-,;ln« STm nooflft 

Quarter turn; oblique, - ' ,,«„, -e.Til wi n.TiI.«8?K 
^>ck, - wol ; - n .,„.„,-,„ nin ^h 

trard, trot, . r „ OTW I0 ^„ qlTI0 .,j n.x.tnir, mgfa 

trot gallop, '. -\ f ,noTii*.Jftt 

fight or left pass ,, ,l„»wM ..r s in ,»)!!% 

Movements of bridle hand,' f) fle , 1( - , d h (S - owl % 

HMt; turn; turn-about, -. nonin vil« drmnonW 






278 INDEX. 

Page. 

Quarter turn ; rein back ; the spur, 33 

Preparation for sabre exercise, 34 

Draw sabre, 35 

Present; carry; return sabre, 36 

Inspection of sabre, 37 

Raise sabre, 38 

Open and close files, 39 

Cuts, thrusts, moulinet, 40 

Tierce, quarte, guard, 41 

Moulinet, 42 

Tierce point; quarte point, 43 

Left point; right point, 44 
Rear point ; against infantry, right and left point, 45 

Front cut ; right cut ; left cut, 46 
Rear cut ; right, left and rear in quarte and tierce, 47 

Parry, 48 

Against infantry — parry, 49 

Manual for Colt's revolver, 51-55 

To load the repeating rifle, 57 

To load with powder and ball, 57 

Manual of breech-loader, 58 

Self-priming breech-loader, 59 

Inspection of revolver pistol, 60 

Inspection of breech-loader, 61 

PART II.— PLATOON DRILL. 

Platoon in 2 ranks ; posts, 62-64 

Squadron in line ; posts, 64—65 

Column of twos and fours, 66-67 

Column of platoons, 67-68 

Column of divisions, 69 

Form platoon (company or squadron), 69 

Right dress ; count by fours, 70 

Alignment, 71 

By file, right backwards dress, 72 

By twos, right or left dress, 73 

To correct the alignment, 74 



INDEX. 279 

Page. 

To open and close ranks, 75-76 

To rein back, 76-77 

To break by files, - 77 

To march in column by files. 78 

To change direction, - 78 

Halt ; forward trot ; oblique, 79 

Platoon, front into line, 80 

Left into line, 81 

On right into line. - 82 

On left into line, 82 

By twos (or fours), 83 

Direct march by twos (or fours), 84 

Head of column left (or right), - 84 

Left turn, - 85 

Left (or right) oblique, 86 

Column of twos or fours, front into line,. 87 

Column of twos or fours, left into line, 88 

Column of twos or fours, on right into line 89 

Left into single rank, 90 

Right into 2 ranks, 91 

To form twos or fours at same gait, - 92 

To break by twos or file, same gait, - 93 

By file, march, - 94 

Form twos — trot, 95 

Form fours — trot, 96 

To break by twos and by file, doubling gait, •- 97 

March in line, - 98 

« " « 99 

Open files, 100 

Close files, - 101 

Open and close files, marching, 102 

Countermarch, 103 

Front, halt, 104 

Wheelings, 105 

Fixed pivot, 106 

In circle wheel, 107 

« « 108 

" " . 109 

« •' 110 



^!:' r i Page. 

jPlatfion right (or left) wheel, ^infn oi:*,U bur; nt-^'o ill 
VV-dt" "- about wheel, ,>1okJ isia-i 112 

VV " " half wheel, ,a> !-i •/■;( -r-'icf 112 

^Moveable pwot, .a si ft \d i<i<^-ri iii-ifintffii 113 

3Seft (or right) turn, ,iiul::: : .-!(b -.visi* i\ ft a>1S4 

{Hindi v-i dual oblique, ,Oif-; il , >j;j lnj= > :ul ;Jili6 

(Blatoon marching in line, to break by ifoxirsi or - '.in(4 

18 twos, -i>i« oJr:: ::116 
dBatoon inarching, by twos or fours, form platoon,. ■*'■ 11-7 
3ly fours (or twos) — -trot, -,:a>il r ''iol 118 
!3Borm platoon — trot, ,( - . to) :- • ■■ i 145 
jPorm-platoon — gallop, ,(smo1 ?< ) a<»/» •{<! rlo>-i-.i luu 120 
iBy fours,- left (or right) wheel, -, ft flu I >.:- ti.'o.j !- bisl20 
("By fours, b'ft-(or right) about wheel, *• -,fnul :12i 
iHalt, right dress, front, ' uplift;.. ftily-n •) i'H2B 
forward, gukle ri^ht (br left), ,«':<>! - i.s.rj/.f '- nmull22 
$Bo march the coiemh of foiits to- the rear * "to >\" 128 
(5Bo gain grouodiiright or left, :■ ,sri«o"i •: sow; i-i rtm 128 
(Movements by fours, -,jIuni .-, - : a oi- > ■■ 124 

19 't •' ' ^c?m ':;■ .-..' .;■ tif J.2S5 
fTo charge by platoon; :• ^ 5- ifi mj.'oI nnomt ; • t! 128 
(56he oharge, ..-.r-j 3m.B8-,difi io-e, .• ■ i \' L iifiaid 127 
Rallying, ~ ,«::~~6-n ,*ii) 1218 
iKkirmishing,- -,:ih •— * .■.■/12Sh1i314 
prepare to fight -on foot f ,...-' -i;i,ji milS 
\Dragoons onjig^tjni'osj-.L ,3lil -^ han<L~wl ; ■ J-^iiOid 136 
fSJing and unslmg carbine, ■ -^ : ' a i -.1 . : ilQ!7 
leaping the ditch and bar, " - " '138 
00 i •' " " -;ji i u- $8)Q 

101 .soia -..iol:) 

soi PAET III.— THE SQUADRON. ,,,...o0 

K)I ,Jlfiri ,!n.nft 

5fiJ - , - .asriiia >>-,ftn 

-XJae squadron, „ , - - 140 

Jrajsmons in line, • . , - , 141 

(gqsitions in column, twos or lours, -,, - a _ i42 

(Buections, ' ,_. ,, 143 

.Count by fours, -,, ;> 144 



.ssfflft- §§i 

.asaq Page ; 

jSupcessive al^nmftntj,.,-, F- l;R ^ rI ;, r1K ..,r 31 {t oi r-v !K > arr# 
ill .rn';)!or)"ti.i j;j;9rl no n on:-iovn;"v' ,'i st ■" o' Jjv.-7,1 • iiyL 
(Tfl open and close ranks,. Vii":-r: v<J uT.-.snievAiHl 

-3x) break the squadron by fours, ' » -\i .. 147 

.Cpiumn of fours, front into line, S| ,j-r r| j jg^^ j.-,„ J-.4P 
^ 8 f " " left , " " '' >,' >, ' ,', . J ,l'4'9 

r ;j|' " " on right. into line, >r >, , -<* -150 

•Sapidity of gaits, ([ . B( r ; .rnrswVa -:('f mM 

"£cj form in one rank and.two^jijn^, f, 1B7/lr ," noiocr/M^f 
^alumn with distance, - Mr,i noibjurS^ 

Changes of direction, ,doiF"'if:v)}rioW 

toft or right oblique, -..j^:,, ,-• ^ji,,^.^ ..,,-., i q j,„jlS> 

grange o^ga^ T , ;5cfj . ,>.,,-., r „ , :,, ;T .',-)„, l5 ^ r jlS| 

Hjcolumn of platoons, to break,.by r ,f i Qurs >3V ;. :f - 3 [- ( j BOV( l ) |^ 

"jjrjtwqs; by fours; by file, "" \sn^7-' u4t» 

plumn by file, jfflpn t^Q ?i i l3 ;; >mi )n«l .trign snoojM 

ilumn by twos, form fours, ^odwHijm sinot W 

>Jumn by fours, form platoons, :-.,,.„ y^; B11IO |lM 

j^fours— trot,. Js , jrf ^ j JTOcilf , dpi , ;-,..,;,# 

L 9 ? m twos— trot, ,i-^..d- i'13l Rap^iW; 

cgcm fours — trot; form platoons — trpf,... ,-, ( :,. f . E f, ,oiirr 

'Aatoons left-about wheel, ,,[,,7),,-,.,,,, v r , ..-jjs -yj ibsill? 

Aj9 .halt the column, - 1=I -"r-'brni'."" 3 s^WM* 

£e|l into line wheel*..- ,,, : , ; „r ri/J ,.> ; .-e.w.usi?! yd, J/4ft| 

^umn with distance, left in front, ,- Ooibmi^ i,1?t 

reak by the right to march to the left,. . .. j 0&1 ,- io ' ,-, , 16| 

pim line to the right by, iAversiofl, .,' ; ,-., -, ,. S3 lftf; 

^e.ak by the right to the rear to march to .the left, : 1,^$ 

(feright into line, .- ! i...L^in.-.>a—iiuWn "'iP-^ 

By inversion on left into IThe, - ., ■limM^ 

Tb;: break by platoons, .iioi£in-,98^.l--»dA7l 

Frpnt into line, ■ . ..^'.gBioll? 7 ^ 

&|,ak by platoons and move forward, ^'i'-vIWA 

tiiS e to the front by inversion, _ ^'n.ihum'AJo 

Platoons right wheel, head of cpl 1 ^mii, | le^ !:] j' > r j ;. u . )H - .,1,^^ 
Line faced to rear on rea, ; v,pf colurnn, -, , r ,, R ],i > af jt o^ff 
fi.ig.lit about wheel, by inversion front.Lnta ty'r^e, ; . j j -^ j^ 
Ij^toons right w^el^bead afc^^r^,^ djr- ioV$ 



282 INDEX. 

Page. 

Line faced to the rear, on head of column, 179 

Line faced to rear, by inversion on head of column, 180 

Movements by fours, 181 

« " « 182 

Direct march in line, I83 

" " 11 « I84 

u- 11 (i <i 185 

Flank files forward; halt, l86 

Squadron forward ; march, 186 

Squadron, halt, 187 

Countermarch, 189 

Wheelings, l90 

Fixed pivot; wheeling in circle, l9l 

Right or left; right about or left about, wheel, 193 

Moveable pivot, turning, 194 

Right oblique, - 195 

Platoons right half (and left half) wheel, 196 

By fours right wheel, 197 

By fours left wheel, 198 

By fours right about wheel, 199 

Platoons left wheel, 200 

Platoons right about, 201 

Break by platoons, marching, 202 

Form squadron, 202 

Break by platoons, doubling the gait, 203 

Form squadron — trot, 204 

Passing obstacles, 205 

In each platoon by fours or twos — trot, 206 

Form platoons, 207 

Charge — rallying — skirmishing, 208 

Charge, 209 

To the charge, march, 211 

As foragers, 212 

Rallying, 213 

Skirmishing, 214 

Whole squadron as skirmishers, 215 

Three first platoons as skirmishers, 216 

One division as skirmishers, - 217 

1st Or 4th platoon rtrRnnm tn -ficrhfr run fnnt. 218 



INDEX. 283 

Page. 

1st or 2d division prepare to fight on foot, 219 

Column by divisions, 220 

Form divisions, ,221 

Column by divisions, by platoons march, 222 

Form divisions — trot, 223 

By platoons — trot, 224 

Divisions, break by right to march to left, 225 
Squadron of 64 files, 226-227 

PART IV —SINGLE RANKS. 

Single rank formations, 228 

Positions, - 229 

In one rank form squadron, 230 

Count by fours ; prepare to mount, - 231 

By files to the right, 231 

Side of the guides, 232 

Front, halt, 233 



DRILL OP MOUNTED RIFLES. 235 

Article i. 

Section. 

Composition of company and posts, etc, - 1 

To mount, 2 

To dismount and to link, 3 

Form and course of inspection, - 4 

Article II. 

Skirmish drill; preliminary remarks, . 5 
To take open order and return to close order (in 

line,) 6 
Open order in line — to break into fours, twos, and 

files, 7 

In column of file to form twos, open order, 8 

In column of file to form fours, open order, 9 



{ , Section 

i Jffik'column of twos,, open.TC>rde:r 1 ..i£,^rin. f©,u,r^, o,gea, ]K ( 
';• ' order, . '" ' . ' ' " v , Cl ' 0l ^.b vd tfrnmo£P 

4ii. column of fours to .form twos, open,,,or; qJ[9^ 10 'i 
.'-,(,•; order, ,-., : ... .,;, ?! . li: j Vo ,„.,,-:.[■.■ ib v' m-ouioli 1 

^.column of twos to form files, open, or clo.se/prder f! .^2 
u To deploy as skirmishers from line, .toi,'— snaoltikf 'Af* 

:n': , ^ o- Article? IIE X« ^-f- ,<^^- r } 

In open order column of fours ; action front and 
left, ;;>!« a. r L-0' ; l ! >J-- VI TJIA'T 14 

In open order column of fours ; action rear and left, 15 
■iaopen order column of fours; ,ajqti©n[iLigfet,v.!:si itgnJSS 
sin open order column of. fours; -action left, r ..v:> hi 3 rlV 
rlivopen order, column of twGs : ;>&e,tiQBfijQota»<ileftto 48 
Jin open order column. pfV,t-wo,? ;9aetj^n-rea«aAdvtt%ajil"9 
'JJn.-open order, column of twos; action j^ight;; o1 'oit -30 
£>:;open order column of, twos; actiondfeft,':; 'n!> "in fifjS3 

^ AETtCLE IV. - f;;! ' '" !r ' ,i 

To deploy as skirmish ers_.w,heji dismounted, 22 

To deploy as skirmishers from column of fours, 23 

After deploying ;^$ skir,n>istoe-r.^'|e,eo^«|:]enwpcfM)n, 24 

Ccrfumn of^ 'fours' 'open' b'rflef to "return To closS'order, 25 

Column of twos open ofder-tefftturn to close order, 26 

Column of file to form fours in close order, 27 

, ',>,;, AETI&I4! .;¥.•-, -rfJOS IO HOiJIM'KJll! jU 

/-y, i- 7 n,r . .niiiom o'f 

Changes of the Manual. . _ ,.,.., ir . fii .^ .| 

{To sling and unsling rifle^-r'-jsa'tii -to astno- :!.'■..;; ftv 28 
Concluding remarks, , 2& 

.iT. SjMTriA 

: -.i^Boib-c Yfsofu^ii-a ; :lnf) •^irTiuH? 

f!f ) i:ij>10 D?Oi:> OS flj«teih:ifi -li'filO iisfjo Slffli ol 

V ;,»«'! 

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;t " -..--.•-.'» <.-,/,> n< ^rft :o ,:;j~n;Aj:> .:il 



BUGLE SIGNALS. 
No. 1. The General. 



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No. 2. Boots and Saddles. 

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No. 5. To Arms. 



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